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Science Standards

Next Generation Science Standards

The Disciplinary Core Ideas defined in the Next Generation Science Standards that pertain to the modules are listed below. The codes for the Disciplinary Core Ideas addressing the modules are indicated for the physical and life sciences.

Physical Sciences

HS-PS1. Matter and Its Interactions

PS1A. Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1B. Chemical Reactions

Life Sciences

HS-LS1. From Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes

LS1A. Structure and Function

LS1B. Growth and Development of Organisms

LS1C. Organization of Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

HS-LS3. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

LS3A. Inheritance of Traits

LS3B. Variation of Traits

National Science Education Standards (former)

The Science Content, Assessment, and Teaching Standards defined in the former National Science Education Standards that pertain to the modules are listed below.

Science Content Standards (C)

CA. Content Standard A: As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop

CA1. Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

CA2. Understandings about scientific inquiry

CA22. Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications

CA23. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence

CB. Content Standard B: As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

CB2. Structure of properties of matter

CB20. Atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing electrons that are furthest from the nucleus. These outer electrons govern the chemical properties of the element.

CB25. Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form a variety of structures, including synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to life.

CB3. Chemical reactions

CB32. A large number of important reactions involves the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other reactions, chemical bonds are broken by heat or light to form very reactive radicals with electrons ready to form new bonds. Radical reactions control many processes such as the presence of ozone and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, burning and processing of fossil fuels, the formation of polymers, and explosions.

CB34. Catalysts, such as metal surfaces, accelerate chemical reactions. Protein molecules called enzymes catalyze chemical reactions in living systems.

CB5. Conservation of energy and increase in disorder

CC. As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

CC1. The cell

CC10. Cells have particular structures that underlie their functions. A membrane that separates it from the outside world surrounds every cell. Inside the cell is a concentrated mixture of thousands of different molecules which form a variety of specialized structures that carry out such cell functions as energy production, transport of molecules, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules, and the storage of genetic material.

CC11. Most cell functions involve chemical reactions. Food molecules taken into cells react to provide the chemical constituents needed to synthesize other molecules. Both breakdown and synthesis are made possible by a large set of protein catalysts, called enzymes. The breakdown of some of the food molecules enables the cell to store energy in specific chemicals that are used to carry out the many functions of the cell.

CC12. Cells store and use information to guide their functions. The genetic information stored in DNA is used to direct the synthesis of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.

CC13. Cell functions are regulated. Regulation occurs both through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins and through the selective expression of individual genes. This regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division.

CG. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

CG1. Science as a human endeavor

CG12. Scientists are influenced by societal, cultural, and personal beliefs and ways of viewing the world. Science is not separate from society but rather science is a part of society.

Assessment Standards (A)

APEP Modules are designed to follow the National Science Standards Guidelines for Assessment. There are several opportunities for assessment within each module. These include, 1) the student handout questions at the beginning of each module, 2) assessment strategies associated with the student activities section, and 3) a set of student self-quiz questions (with answers) associated with each module.

AA. Assessments must be consistent with the decisions they are designed to inform.

AA1. Assessments are deliberately designed.

AA2. Assessments have explicitly stated purposes.

AA3. The relationship between the decisions and the data is clear.

AB. Achievement and opportunity to learn science must be assessed.

AB1. Achievement data collected focus on the science content that is most important for students to learn. The content standards define the science all students will come to understand. They portray the outcomes of science education as rich and varied, encompassing

AB11. The ability to inquire.

AB12. Knowing and understanding scientific facts, concepts, principles, laws, and theories.

AB13. The ability to reason scientifically.

AB14. The ability to use science to make personal decisions and to take positions on societal issues.

AB15. The ability to communicate effectively about science.

AC. The technical quality of the data collected is well matched to the decisions and actions taken on the basis of their interpretation.

AC2. Assessment tasks are authentic. 

AC4. Students have adequate opportunity to demonstrate their achievements. 

AC5. Assessment tasks and methods of presenting them provide data that are sufficiently stable to lead to the same decisions if used at different times.

AD. Assessment practices must be fair.

AD2. Large-scale assessments must use statistical techniques to identify potential bias among subgroups.

AD4. Assessment tasks must be set in a variety of contexts, be engaging to students with different interests and experiences, and must not assume the perspective or experience of a particular gender, racial, or ethnic group.