Technoscience / Ecomateriality / Literature

Duke University ♦ Fall 2014 ♦ Lit 80 ♦ Amanda Starling Gould

Twitter: @stargould #augrealities, Web: Augmenting Realities 2.0

Course Schedule


Week 1: How We Think

Aug 27: Introduction & Presentation of Class Texts, Assignments, and Website.

→ Start Reading Neuromancer. We will be discussing the book starting next week.
→ Start thinking (yes, already) about your final project’s topic and media element(s).
→ We will be visiting the Duke immersive Virtual Environment (DiVE) already next week!

Aug 29: How We Think, Hayles, 2013

Read Chapter 1, Chapter 2 (stop at p43), Chapter 3 (just p72-83) – all on Sakai

1) Look through the digital resources on Hayles’s How We Think bookpage
2) “How We Think: The Transforming Power of Digital Technologies” Hayles GA Tech Lecture (Audio)

Weekly Blog: Set up only for this week: Login, look around, familiarize yourself with the system. Change your name if you’d prefer to use a pseudonym. BE ABSOLUTELY SURE to let me know what your chosen name will be if you select an anonymous moniker.

Week 2: Augmenting How We Think: Using Neuromancer’s cyberspace as a tool to think with…


We will meet at 3:00 (note time) at the DiVE: Room 1617 A, CIEMAS/Fitzpatrick Center, Engineering Quad, West Campus

Read Neurofutures edited by Tim Lenoir. Download here:
Read Oculus wants to build a billion-person MMO with Facebook via the Verge
Read or Listen to the audio: Virtual Reality At Duke Opens New Worlds

Keeping in mind our introduction and our How We Think discussion last week, be prepared to answer the following questions during our DiVE session:

» How can we think critically about the DiVE as a reading and writing medium?
» How do we think with, through, and alongside (Hayles) this technology?
» If you had free range and a team of experts, what would you do in/with the DiVE medium?

Sept 5: Neuromancer, Gibson, 1984

Read Neuromancer. Have the first half of the novel read.

> Not yet purchased your print copy? Prefer online reading or audio? The full text can be found online via and you can find Audio mp3s of Gibson reading his text here or in clips via YouTube

Weekly Blog: Novel Response – I eagerly encourage you to integrate thoughts about our DiVE trip into your novel response blog. Due no later than 1pm on Monday the 8th.

Week 3: Augmenting (Humanities) Scholarship: Why We Make & What We Make

Sept 10: Neuromancer, Cyberspace, & Data-bodies, Body as data, DNA as data storage

Finish the novel if you’ve not already
Read the short piece “There is No Cyberspace” & skim the response “There is Only Cyberspace”
Read “Book written in DNA code”
Read & Watch the short video clip: We’ll be uploading our entire MINDS to computers by 2045 and our bodies will be replaced by machines within 90 years, Google expert claims

1) Skim: “William Gibson, The Art of Fiction No. 211”
2) Read: “How To Kill Digital Dualism Without Erasing Differences”
3) Follow William Gibson on Twitter:  @greatdismal
4) Read: Donna Haraway’s Cyborg Manifesto, 1991

Sept 12: Why We Make & What We Make: Digital Humanities: texts, theories

Read and Watch the following articles & short TED Talk. Then choose three of the projects below to explore. Come to class prepared to discuss those projects you chose.

Read “How a Prototype Argues”, Galey & Ruecker, 2010
Read Literature is Not Data & In Defense of Data – 2 Responses to Marche
Skim We’re on the cusp of deep learning for the masses. You can thank Google later
Watch What we learned from 5 million books (A TED video)

Literary DH Projects (Choose at least 3)

1) Understanding Shakespeare
2) Infographic: Every Scene In The Great Gatsby
3) Writing Without Words: Visualizing On The Road – See especially Literary Organism, Sentence Drawings & Sentence Length
4) Interactive Google Maps of the roadtrip(s) in Danielewski’s Only Revolutions and other text analysis features of the text created as companions to Hayles’s How We Think
) Text Analysis + Social Media + Social Science: Temporal Patterns of Happiness and Information in a Global Social Network: Hedonometrics and Twitter
6) Text analysis reveals source of pseudonymous authorship: How Forensic Linguistics Revealed J. K. Rowling’s Secret
7) Text analysis explores historical social & psychological trends: The Expression of Emotions in 20th Century Books

In-Class: Begin Partnered #dh Project Critique. Specific details can be found here on the Partnered #dh Project Critique Page.

Weekly Blog: How do the projects above ‘augment’ scholarship? Do they augment reality? What is the value of adding the ‘digital’ to the ‘humanities’? How did the Hayles reading on DH inform your reading of the articles and projects above? Can you make connections between DH and Neuromancer?

Note: While in blogging mode, return to your first post and add tags if you’ve not yet done so.

Week 4: Augmenting by Doing: Critiquing and Hands-on Making (of what we make)

Sept 17: Digital Humanities Project Critique

In-class Collaborative Assignment: Present your projects & critques.
Review Assessment, Citation, and Copyright rules for digital humanities projects.

Create a Twitter @Persona Account. You can choose one of our literary theorists, one of our novelists, one of our novel characters, or a version of yourself acting under a certain persona/agenda and you’ll be asked to tweet as this @persona throughout the semester. Be creative and do be sure not to use the real names of the people so as to not confuse the twitterverse. You want to masquerade as a persona, you do not want to hijack a real person’s digital presence.

Sept 19: Digital Making! Digital Class: Genius, Twitter & In-class Tool Tester Maker Lab

Before class: Create a Genius (formerly RapGenius) Account if you do not already have one. Familiarize yourself with the interface.

In class: See full details on the Tool Tester Maker Lab Page

Part 1: We will be digitally annotating Mattern’s Evaluating Multimodal Scholarship Criteria on RapGenius. From these annotations, we will cull our own collaboratively-authored criteria for the assessment <ahem, the grading> of your final projects.

Part 2: Twitter Posting using your @Persona account. In creating your account, you can choose one of our literary theorists, one of our novelists, one of our novel characters, or a version of yourself acting under a certain persona/agenda and you’ll be asked to tweet as this @persona throughout the semester. Be creative and do be sure not to use the real names of the people so as to not confuse the twitterverse. You want to masquerade as a persona, you do not want to hijack a real person’s digital presence.

Part 3: Hands-on Tool-tester Lab using Digital Humanities tools.

Weekly Blog: Post your Partnered #dh Project Critique by 1:00 on Monday. Make sure all authors’ names appear on the blog post. Try to integrate media into your post, adding any links, images, video and/or interactive features relevant to your chosen project(s) and/or your critique. REMEMBER to cite all sources and be sure to tag your post.

Week 5: Augmenting Reading: Collaborative Reading of Who Owns the Future?

Sept 24: Who Owns the Future?, Lanier, 2013 Discussion & Informal Presentations

Read Everyone reads Chapter 1 – full text on Sakai
Read Each of you will read your assigned chapters and then 1) prepare your Shared Reading Notes (see assignment description on our assignments page) and 2) present your chapters to the class.

Skim: Venture Capital Firm Appoints Machine Intelligence As Board Member

Informal in-class Presentation: Teach your chapter to the class: Tell us about the chapter you’ve read, covering at the very least the notes you’ve written for your Shared Reading Notes for Collaborative Text Reading. Each student will have 10-15 minutes max, including time for questions.

Sept 26: Big Data as “Revolution”

Watch Viktor Mayer-Schonberger & Kenneth Cukier Video Big Data:  A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think, 2013.
Watch Nicholas Felton: A Quantified Life via the NYTimes
Read about the Quantified Employee: Quantified Self: Meet the Quantified Employee via Forbes
Watch Explore The “Quantified Self” Revolution with Jason Silva
Read about the Quantified Student: The latest dangerous education “reform”: Tracking students’ data via Salon
Check out these ‘Quantified Self’ (QS) apps: Be prepared to discuss two that you find interesting – find one that you might want or be willing to use and another that you’d never want or be willing to use.

1) Beware the device: Fitbit and Other Wearable Tracking Devices High Security Risk
2) If you’d like to read/skim the book Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think, 2013, the chapters 1, 5, 6, and 10 are the most pertinent to our discussion.

Weekly Blog: No Blog, just post your Collaborative Notes to the Google Doc before Friday at 1:00

Note: Return to your previous posts – including your Critique – and add tags if you’ve not yet done so.

Week 6: Gaming Reality

Oct 1: Lab VISIT! Guest Artist and 3D Printing Expert Libi Striegl will be giving us a hands-on 3D printing demo & a quick demo of how Twine can be used to make interactive narratives & games.

Gamer Theory, Wark, 2007

Read Chapter 1, Chapter 2, and Parts #223-#225. READ the notes as well.
Read “Clive Thompson on the Future of Reading in a Digital World”
Explore GAM3R 7H3ORY 1.1 and Gamer Theory 2.0

Start Looking at the Games

Optional: Follow or Tweet to @mckenziewark

Oct 3: Gamer Theory + Games,

Guest Scholar! Computer Scientist Barry Peddycord III will be joining us for a behind-the-scenes hands-on game demo

Read Bogost How To Do Things With Videogames, Intro (p1-8) – on Sakai
Look through at least half and Try at least two of the games listed below (feel free to try them all!). Come to class prepared to tell us about them.

Games to choose from:

1) Play The Company of Myself¹
2) Check out² Portal see Trailer via YouTube
3) Play Flow
4) Play or Check out Cloud
5) How does it feel to be a Mountain?: Try the game You Are a Mountain
6) Play Storyteller (Playable Prototype) & Forthcoming game
7) Check out Journey
8) Check out Tangiers
9) Can a game make you feel regret? Try the game Regret
10) Check out the ‘urban interactive narrative game’ called Games of Nonchalence
11) Check out Thomas Was Alone
12) Watch the Parallax³ trailer

¹This can also be played online for free via other sites.
² By “Check out” I mean watch the trailer, skim the website, and maybe play the game if you’d like.
³This game is still a prototype…but check out the trailer on this site.

Check this out: Videogames as Art: See How Beautiful Video Game Worlds Are, Minus The Game Part

VR gaming at home:

Maybe also try some ‘games considered for meaning and significance’ at

Weekly Blog: Game(r) Critique due posted to the blog by 1:00 pm on Monday the 6th. For specific blog details, review the Assignments page.

Week 7: The Reality of Digital Materialities

Oct 8: Digital Materiality

Read Jean-François Blanchette, “A Material History of Bits”. Available at (download link here provided by Blanchette via his website)

Read/View This Is What the Internet Looks Like: Undersea Internet Cables via CNN
and…Check out what happens when When Sharks Attack (the Internet!)

Read Internet Machine – Invisible infrastructures of the internet via Creative Applications
This Is What the Cloud Looks Like: The Cloud Is Actually a Tangible Thing
Read/View Ethereal Photos Make WiFi Signals Visible via Flavorwire
Read/View Whirling Wi-Fi: Vibrant images reveal how wireless networks sweep and surround us via
Visit Google’s NC Data Center online: Where the Internet Lives: Visit the places your computer has already been
» Note: our site header image is an inside shot from this data center.
» Note: Google only has 6 US data centers and one is just a few hours from us!

Oct. 10: Data Materiality: Tracking your personal data. Are you a person byte online?

Read the following and integrate these into your mini-presentation of your data log

1) “Understanding Google’s Info Empire” via HASTAC
2) On Google’s autocomplete: “Google reflecting your own habits back at you” via Rhizome and Google Autofill Experiment Truly Horrifying via Huffington Post and also via Huffington Post
3) Digital Shadow: Watch Dogs Analyze Your Digital Shadow
4) Perfect Facebook Feed: Inside the science that delivers your scary-smart Facebook & Twitter feeds via Wired
5) Your data leads to ‘mind reading’ apps: The App That Knows You via NYTimes
6) Do we want this? AOL Wants to Personalize Your Web Surfing via Fast.CoLabs

Test – Run through each and bring your results to class and/or post your results on the blog

1) Visualize your Facebook Data (Click on the “Get Your Report” button) with Wolfram|Alpha Personal Analytics for Facebook
2) See your worth to Facebook using the PrivacyFix application
3) Process your Twitter Report using Gravitron
4) Tell us what your Your Twitter Bot would say using the What Would I Say App

→ My bot’s first tweet: “Recently developed cyberskin will be published in Convergence -AmandaStarlingGouldBot”

1) Read: A New Underclass: The People Who Big Data Leaves Behind
2) Read: Commodify Us: Our Data Our Terms
3) Read: Researchers Test Personal Data Market to Find Out How Much Your Information Is Worth
4) Skim “Yes, You Can Monetize Your Own Social Data–Here’s How”
5) Skim Investors Including Horowitz Back Cryptocurrency Startup OpenCoin
6) Read The 10 Algorithms That Dominate Our World
7) Watch Watch 10 seconds of high-frequency stock trading in super slow motion
8) Read Google Inc. (GOOGL)’s Driverless-Cars To Choose What To Hit In Case Of An Accident: Sebastian Thrun
9) Read How Your Body’s Unique Biosignatures Are Used for Surveillance

Weekly Blog: Questions for inspiration: What sort of reading, writing, and thinking medium is quantified data tracking? If we think with and through and alongside our technologies, as Hayles writes in her How We Think, how do we think through the experience of our own (mediated) data delivered to us by way of biometrically-tuned technological devices? How does a material perspective alter our understanding and experience of the internet and networked digital systems? If data is typically seen as ‘immaterial’ and materials are seen as solid physical artifacts, how can we understand a world wherein data is material and materials are data?

Week 8: Matrixed & Hybrid Realities, Hybrid Reading/Writing Spaces

Oct 15: Daytripper, Ba & Moon

Read the graphic novel Daytripper.

→ Check out the Chicago School of Media Theory’s entry on the Graphic Novel.

Optional (but highly recommended)
1) Read/Skim: Interview with Ba & Moon about Daytripper
2) Read/Skim: Review by tech writer and BoingBoing editor Cory Doctorow

Oct 17: Hands on Maker Lab: the Makey Makey device

Brendan C. O’Connell from NCSU Library will be our guest today teaching us to use Makey Makey devices to create innovative physical computing interfaces.

Brendan’s presentation:

Links from Libi:, 

Weekly Blog: For your Graphic Novel Response blog this week, you’ll be digitally annotating pages from the graphic novel Daytripper as supplementary ‘media elements’ to ‘augment’ your blog post. See assignment page here. Use at least four images – or two full spreads – in your blog and be sure to explain your annotations if explanation is necessary.

Week 9: Electronic Literature as Augmented Literature

Oct 22: DH Tools & Electronic Literature

Read pages 1-30 of Electronic Literature: New Horizons For the Literary, Hayles, 2008  – on Sakai

Start Looking at your assigned electronic literature pieces.

Hands-on Tool Tester Lab #2, Introduction to Electronic Literature

Oct 24: E-lit Critique

Skim A Bibliographic Overview of Electronic Literature, as you work through your assigned e-lit works. It might prove to be quite helpful for your critiques as it provides an overview of the field, of theoretical positions within the field, and of representative works and authors.
Explore your assigned E-Lit pieces. Be prepared to present them to the class. We will begin E-Lit Critique presentations today.

E-lit Critique Presentation: Present your e-lit pieces to the class. Tell us why you like it or dislike it. Point out the ‘literary’ elements. Use our theoretical pieces, the Bibliographic Overview and Hayles’s Electronic Literature as resources for ‘theorizing’ what the piece does or means or attempts to do or mean. And/or explore what and how it contributes to the e-lit conversation and to the contemporary literary canon. How does e-lit augment the reading experience?

Weekly Blog: E-lit Critique, [Note Extended Deadline] due Tuesday at 11:59pm. See our Assignments page for specs.

**Start Looking Ahead: You have final project abstracts due Nov 1 and drafts of final projects due on Dec 1!**

Week 10: Augmented Reality

Oct 29: Oculus Rift and the (nearly and/or not-even-close and/or already here) alternate realities of AR

>>Oculus Rift Design Sprint Challenge: Ultimate Oculus Rift Literary App

Read Vinge Chapter 4 from the novel Rainbows End, 2006.  How does this compare to Neuromancer’s Cyberspace?
Explore AR Books: Electrolibrary, Between Page and Screen, & HideOut
Read Selections from WIRED (2014) & New Scientist (October 2014):

1) Be sure to read & watch the short video in the middle: The Inside Story of Oculus Rift and How Virtual Reality Became Reality 2) Check out the Oculus Rift website
3) Read Drop into the Interstellar wormhole with Oculus Rift
4) Check out WIRED magazine’s many articles (all listed here using a basic tag search…) about the Oculus Rift – there are articles here about VR and the economy, VR and Thomas Edison, VR and gaming, VR and South Park, Hacking the Oculus Rift, etc

*Come to class with a basic understanding of what it is, what it does, how it is currently being used, and how it works.

Optional satellite event this week:

Thursday, Oct 30
4:15 pm (talk starts at 4:30pm)
Smith Bay 10 “collision space” (2nd floor – enter through Bays 9 or 11)

Ayana Burkins & Teddy Ward · DiVE, Navigation in Virtual Environments

This week, Ayana Burkins and Teddy Ward, computer science undergraduate students working under Regis Kopper of the DiVE will present their work on navigation in virtual environments. Ayana: My project is a study of the use of auditory cues as a wayfinding aid in virtual environments. Users will perform wayfinding tasks using an Oculus Rift application to determine if they are able to perform tasks faster and more accurately in environments with sound. Teddy: We have adapted a technique for locomotion, finger walking in place, for use with the Oculus Rift. In the past, some virtual environment interaction techniques have been found to have gender-based differences in whose performance they improve. Therefore, we will test peoples’ sense of spatial understanding while using the FWIP technique and an Xbox 360 joystick, and look in particular at differences in performance between genders. Aside from presenting their research, we will have live demos of the experiments with two versions of the Oculus Rift.

Oct 31: Final Project Check-Ins

Each student will give a Brief Presentation of his/her Abstract and any prototypes or sketches or progress up to this point. You need a thesis, a media element idea, and a description of your project’s main questions, main ideas, and main goals. Within the description, you should briefly outline how your media element is implicated in each.

Weekly Blog: Post your #dh Final Project proposal/abstract on the blog.

Week 11: Augmenting Reality, Realistically

Nov 5: Ebocloud, Moss, 2010 (or 2013 by Aqueous Books)

Read through chapter 16, part 2.

1) Interview with Rick Moss about Ebocloud
2) Review of 2011 edition: Ebocloud, A Novel About The Social Singularity

TWEETING WITH THE AUTHOR!: Ebocloud author Rick Moss has agreed to join our Ebocloud conversation by engaging our questions and comments via Twitter @RickMoss and via email (ask me for the details). During class, we can tweet him our questions – remember to use #augrealities and his handle @rickmoss in your tweet – and if questions remain, we can email him. 

Nov 7: Ebocloud & Ebocloud Realities

Finish the novel

Read Dialog: Author Rick Moss and Michael Anissimov on the “Social Singularity”

Choose at least 4 (but feel free to read all!) of these short articles to skim:

1) Temporary tattoos could make electronic telepathy & telekinesis possible & Stamp-On Circuits Could Put Your Phone On Your Finger & Google patenting an electronic ‘throat tattoo’
2) Prepare For The Coordination Economy, Where Your House Builds Itself
3) How Much Longer Until Humanity Becomes A Hive Mind?
4) MIT Researcher: 6 Ways Technology Will Make Us Immortal, Telepathic & More
5) This Mind-Controlled 3-D Printer Generates Creatures From Kid’s Brainwaves
6) Are downloadable memories just round the corner?
7) The Future Of Technology Isn’t Mobile, It’s Contextual
8) Neural Dust as Brain-Machine Interface
9) Why not embed an art gallery in your arm? Net Art Implant
10) Swarming Robots create animations and make stuff
11) A chip that turns your body into a battery

Again today, TWEETING WITH THE AUTHOR! we can take advantage of Ebocloud author Rick Moss’s generosity and include him in our conversation by sending him our questions and comments via Twitter @RickMoss and via email (ask me for the details). During class, we can tweet him our questions – remember to use #augrealities and his handle @rickmoss in your tweet – and if questions remain, we can email him.

Weekly Blog: Novel Response

Week 12: Augmenting Reality via Apps and Mobile/Locative Technologies

Nov 12: AR apps & Google Glass & #1wkNoTech

Online public tech-based #1wknotech publication collaboration:

Read Apps That Present Highlights of the World in Front of You
Read 7 Ways Augmented Reality Will Improve your Life
Read/Watch On the Google Glass website, watch How it Feels & read What it Does
Watch The Future of Augmented Reality
Watch AR Locative Street Gaming & Google Glass game Swarm!
Watch Microsoft’s Vision of 2020
Watch Sight
Check out
levelHead by Julian Oliver
Check out some of these videos Invisibility 3D — Mind Bending Augmented Reality app  & MIT Smarter Objects Augmented Reality User Interface  & SpaceGlasses: The future of augmented reality? & Top 5 Augmented Reality Apps & An Artist Envisions, And Perhaps Shapes, Our Augmented, Branded Future Reality & How Google Glass Could Revolutionize The Music Industry & IBM augmented reality shopping app


The main Twitter account is @1wknotech

The FB group is here: Membership is not required

*Participants should use the #1wknotech hashtag and add the #tumblr hashtag (on Twitter & Facebook) when they are attaching photos (so they can be archived in our Tumblr)

An article from #1wkNoTech founder Mark Marino: Why I’m Giving Up Technology For A Week…and Tweeting About The Experience Daily.

Nov 14: Media Geology

Read The Geology of Media
Sensors Listen to the World via Wired
Martin Howse Programming Computers with Dirt
The Earth is My Motherboard
Transmediale Media of the Earth, Geologies of the Flesh

Weekly Blog: Topic of your choosing related to this week’s readings and activities. Write on Google Glass, #1wkNoTech, and/or on an element of media geology that interests you. Even better, find a way to intersect and interconnect the three.

Week 13 Pre-Holiday Project Blast

Nov 19: #dh Project Peer Critiques

In-class assignment: You will be presenting your final project specs, arguments, prototypes, and justifications to at least one other classmate. You will complete a peer-review response sheet for each project presented to you. Think of this as a twist on the typical ‘peer edit’ writing exercise. Each of you will leave with at least one set of peer feedback responses that you can use as you prepare your project drafts.

For your peer review, you should have the following (AT MINIMUM) prepared and ready to share:

**Put all of these on a single Google Doc and share that document with me before class.

-a well-developed thesis and a grasp of your basic argument

-a well-developed argument, investigation, or object of study and a scheme for how you’ll address it

-a detailed outline if not a full (or partial) first draft

-a rough bibliography

-a concrete idea for your media element and a narrative explaining why you’ve chosen it and how you’ll create it

**Though these are the minimum requirements, it is in your best interest to have as much of a first draft completed as is possible. The more you are able to share for peer review, the more feedback you’ll have as you continue. Your graded first draft will be due Dec. 1.

The peer review sheet that you and your peers will be completing is here: Augmenting Realities Transmedia Essay Peer Critique. This should give you a better idea of what you should have prepared.

Nov 21: Individual Conferences

3:05: Pooja

3:20: Norma

3:35: Cathy

3:50: Greg

4:05: Diego

4:20: David

Weekly Blog: No Blog.  Keep working on your final project drafts.

Week 14: Thanksgiving Break. No Class

Food for thought for Thanksgiving & Hanukkah: What do you think of this? The internet mystery that has the world baffled. Our Gamer Theory author McKenzie Wark posted this last year on Thanksgiving with the note “The world is just a giant William Gibson novel at this point.” Do you agree?

And how do we feel about about typographically writing images? Type Your Own Animated Movie With This Crazy Software

And for dessert: Is the Mysterious New Free App “Curiosity” the Internet’s Most Popular Social Art Project?

**Drafts of Final Project Due By December 1**  Submit your drafts by midnight Dec. 1 by sharing your drafts with me in your Google ePortfolio.

Week 15: Class Project Presentations

Dec 3: Project Presentations & Final Peer Critique

For your presentations, you will be limited to 1 slide and 6 minutes. Good luck!

See here ePortfolio Contents for your Final Project ePortfolio check list.

Dec 5: In-class AugRealities webjournal collaboration, Final Check in

Weekly Blog: Post your project notes and presentation slide. If you’d like to record the presentation you give in class this week, feel free to post the video and/or audio of your presentation alongside your notes and slides.

Week 16: Finals (No class meetings these days)

Dec 9: Undergraduate Reading Day

Dec 12: Finals DUE by 5pm! NO EXTENSIONS, LATE PROJECTs will be penalized.


DISCLAIMER: This schedule is a living document. As such, it is not only subject to change, but in fact highly likely to change, based on our collective interests, throughout the course of the semester. Don’t let this scare you. You’ll always be notified of changes – indeed you’ll most likely be involved in making them – and you’ll always have a proper heads-up so as to have sufficient time to complete scheduled assignments.