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Tag Archives: private equity
by Ignacio Hidalgo Perea
In this paper, I explore the impact Private Equity ownership has on portfolio companies post-exit. This thesis aims to add to the discussion of whether the proliferation of Private Equity in the United States is a positive development for the country. Using a proprietary dataset that compiles thousands of IPOs between the years 2000 and 2016, I look at whether there are significant differences in performance between IPOs that come from Private Equity firms and those that go public on their own. Specifically, I use empirical analysis with robust regression to estimate the effects of Private Equity ownership on four key measures of financial success: MCAP growth, Revenue Growth, EBITDA Margin, and EV / EBITDA multiple. By looking at the changes in these measures of performance across three different time windows: 3 years post-IPO, 6 years post-IPO, and 9 years post-IPO, this paper determines how Private Equity ownership affects company performance post-exit and whether those effects persist over time.
Grace Kim, Faculty Advisor
JEL Codes: G23, G24
By Bryn Wilson
This thesis contributes to existing knowledge of the private equity asset class by examining whether public-to-private leveraged buyouts outperform public peers before and after the mega-buyout era (2005 – 2007). This paper considers the impact of four groups of value drivers on both market- and peer-adjusted returns. These value drivers include operational improvements, leverage, multiple expansion and market timing, and management and corporate decision making. I analyze how these factors change over time, aiming to determine whether public-to-private target firms improve profitability, return on assets, and investment more than peers. I also examine how employment changes at target firms relative to peers. Multivariable regression analysis is used to quantify the impact of operating performance changes, leverage, multiple expansion, credit market conditions, GDP growth, and management and corporate decisions on market- and peer-adjusted returns. The paper constructs a sample of 227 public-to-private transactions from 1996 – 2013 and analyzes 74 transactions with post-buyout financial information available. Results suggest that private equity ownership post-buyout does not lead to significant operational improvements relative to peers, but that improving profitability and ROA are crucial to outperforming the market and peers.
Dr. Connel Fullenkamp, Faculty Advisor
JEL classification: G3; G34; G32; G11
by Robert Williams
Private equity firms first began acquiring hospitals in the United States during the early 1990s, yet the effects of private equity ownership on patient outcomes and treatment costs are still not clear. Some argue that although private equity firms are adept at improving operating efficiencies and introducing managerial expertise, these cost-cutting measures may come at the expense of patient outcomes.
Because acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) serve as proxies for patient outcomes and treatment costs, I collect information on 30-day mortality rates and Medicare reimbursements for treatments of AMIs at US Medicare-certified short-term acute care general hospitals from 2014 to 2019. This paper uses fixed effects models to analyze the impact of leveraged buyouts, relative to strategic acquisitions, on patient outcomes. After integrating both hospital and time fixed effects, I find that private equity ownership does not lead to significant changes in Medicare reimbursements or mortality rates for AMI treatments.
Advisors: Professor Ryan McDevitt, Professor Grace Kim, Professor Michelle Connolly | JEL Codes: I0, I110, G340
Private Equity Buyouts and Strategic Acquisitions: An Analysis of Capital Investment and the Timing of Takeovers in the United States
By Anthony Melita
This paper investigates how motivational differences between agents who execute private equity buyouts and those who execute strategic (corporate) acquisitions may influence the timing of capital investment via takeovers. This paper synthesizes prominent merger theories to inform macroeconomic variables that may drive acquisitions. I find a significant negative expected effect of volatility on capital investment via takeover for each buyer type, a negative expected effect from valuation multiples on capital investment from PE buyouts, and a positive expected effect from debt capacity (EBITDA-CAPEX) on capital investment from PE buyouts.
Advisors: Professor Grace Kim | JEL Codes: G3, G34, G29
By Peter Noonan
This thesis analyzes factors that determine acquisition premiums paid by private equity firms in public to private leveraged buyouts. Building off of established literature that models the acquisition premiums paid in corporate mergers and acquisitions (M&A), this paper considers factors that influence a private equity firm’s willingness to pay (referred to as reservation price) and the bargaining power dynamic between a target company and acquirer in leveraged buyouts. Specifically, multivariable regression analysis is used to quantify the impact of a target company’s trading multiple, profitability, stock price as a percentage of its annual high, and number of competitors, a private equity firm’s deal approach and payment method, and the financial market’s 10-year US Treasury yield and high-yield interest rates at the time a transaction was announced. A sample of 320 public to private leveraged buyout transactions completed from 2000 to 2020 is constructed to perform this paper’s regression analysis. Using 2008 as an inflection point, this thesis then applies the same regression model to the subperiods from 2000–2008 and from 2009–2020 to examine how these drivers have changed as a result of industry trends—increased competition, low interest rates, and new value creation investment strategies—as well as the 2008 financial crisis and US presidential election—two crucial events that caused tremendous change in the financial system and intense scrutiny of the private equity industry. From the same original transaction screen, a second sample of 659 transactions is used to perform a difference of acquisition premium means t-test to analyze how the absolute magnitude of leverage buyout acquisition premiums have changed across these two subperiods. The second sample consists of more transactions due the t-tests less data-demanding nature as a result of its fewer variables. Results of this paper’s baseline model suggest that acquisition premiums are driven by a target company’s…
Advisors: Professor Ronald Leven, Professor Michelle Connolly | JEL Codes: G3, G11, G34
By Maria Suhail and Cipriano Echavarría
This thesis contributes to existing knowledge of private equity (PE) by analyzing the
impact of PE ownership post-IPO upon the long-term performance of companies. It considers whether companies perform better when PE funds maintain their ownership stakes post-IPO and whether this performance is also impacted by the degree of ownership that is maintained after IPO. This study uses stock performance (measured by cumulative excess stock returns) as a proxy for long-run company performance. The paper constructs and analyzes a sample of 487 companies that underwent an IPO between 2004 and 2012 to determine the implications of the maintenance and level of PE ownership by analyzing the performance of these companies for six years post-IPO. Results suggest that PE ownership post-IPO positively impacts long-term stock performance of companies. Duration and degree of PE ownership post-IPO are also important determinants of long-run performance likely due to the positive signal that continued PE ownership sends to outside investors about the quality of the company, the information asymmetry that exists between public and private markets and that PE firms are experienced managers that add value to companies.
Advisors: Professor David Robinson, Professor Michelle Connolly | JEL Codes: G11, G14, G24