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Tag Archives: IPO
By Michael Tan
This paper concerns applying statistical methods to investigate under-pricing in VC-backed technology Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) since the great recession. In particular, firm, market, and IPO-specific variables were explored to determine if there were any significant relationships to under-pricing. The paper focused on the Bank Preference theory of under-pricing, where under-pricing is said to occur because investment banks running IPO processes are incentivized to under-price to decrease the risk that they will not be able to allocate all the issuance to price-sensitive public markets investors.
Advisors: Professor Daniel Xu, Professor Shawn Santo, Professor Grace Kim| JEL Codes: G3, G33, G24
By Maria Suhail and Cipriano Echavarría
This thesis contributes to existing knowledge of private equity (PE) by analyzing the
impact of PE ownership post-IPO upon the long-term performance of companies. It considers whether companies perform better when PE funds maintain their ownership stakes post-IPO and whether this performance is also impacted by the degree of ownership that is maintained after IPO. This study uses stock performance (measured by cumulative excess stock returns) as a proxy for long-run company performance. The paper constructs and analyzes a sample of 487 companies that underwent an IPO between 2004 and 2012 to determine the implications of the maintenance and level of PE ownership by analyzing the performance of these companies for six years post-IPO. Results suggest that PE ownership post-IPO positively impacts long-term stock performance of companies. Duration and degree of PE ownership post-IPO are also important determinants of long-run performance likely due to the positive signal that continued PE ownership sends to outside investors about the quality of the company, the information asymmetry that exists between public and private markets and that PE firms are experienced managers that add value to companies.
Advisors: Professor David Robinson, Professor Michelle Connolly | JEL Codes: G11, G14, G24
Auctions as an Alternative to Book Building in the IPO Process: An Examination of Underpricing for Large Firms in France
By John Mekjian
A relevant factor in determining the quality of an initial public offering (IPO) mechanism is the level and variability of underpricing that occurs. The percentage difference between the IPO price and the closing price after one day of trading is a common way to define the “underpricing” of the stock. Although companies may value a small amount of positive underpricing, they certainly want this to be controlled. Both extreme positive and extreme negative underpricing are undesirable for a company. Building off of a paper that found a lower mean and variability of underpricing for firms that use the auction IPO mechanism as opposed to the book building IPO mechanism, this paper argues that auctions are not disadvantaged when only large firms are considered. Although this paper finds that the book building mechanism controls underpricing better than the auction mechanism, the advantage disappears when considering only large firms. This analysis is relevant because, aside from two companies, only small companies have used the auction IPO mechanism in the United States. Due to the lack of auction IPOs in the United States, this paper uses French data in its analysis. By showing that large firms using the auction mechanism are not disadvantaged when compared to large firms using the book building mechanism, this paper attempts to encourage large firms in the United States to consider using the auction method for their IPOs.
Advisor: James Roberts, Marjorie McElroy | JEL Codes: G12, G14, G20, G30 | Tagged: