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Space, Radiation, & Cancer: What Have you Learned?

1.  Which of the following is not one of the health challenges NASA is concerned about in terms of space travel?

a) high-energy cosmic rays

b) ionizing radiation

c) p53 gene damage

d) interrupted circadian rhythm

e) none of the above

2.  Why would someone do a “buccal swab”?

a) to determine a genetic predisposition for a disorder

b) to manipulate human DNA in animal vectors

c) to cleanse the inside of the mouth

d) to determine an appropriate treatment for cancer

e) all of the above

3.  Which of the following is/are examples of types of protection our body has against ultraviolet radiation?

a) melanin

b) sunblocking proteins

c) DNA repair mechanisms

d) A and C

e) all of the above


4.  You have a hot coffee in a mug and decide to cool it down by putting ice inside it. Describe the transfer of kinetic energy.

a) energy goes from the ice to the coffeeb

b) energy goes from the coffee to the icec

c) the mug absorbs all the heatd

d) indeterminatee

e) None of the above


5.  If you found out that you have a mutation in your p53 gene, which of the following would be true

a) transcription of the p53 gene would be alteredb

b) translation of the p53 gene would be disruptedc

c) the p53 protein would be dysfunctionald

d) A and Ce

e) None of the above


6.  Which of the following indicates the correct relationship between wavelength and frequency?

a) short wavelength –> low frequency

b) long wavelength –> high frequency

c) short wavelength –> high frequency

d) A and B

e) none of the above


7.  What kind of conditions can create tumors?

a) tumor suppressor genes

b) mutations in tumor suppressor genes

c) mutations in oncogenes

d) B and C

e) all of the above


8.  If the purine nucleotide adenine in a gene was substituted with another purine, forming a mutation, which would it be?

a) guanine

b) cytosine

c) uracil

d) thymine

e) xanthine


9.  Which of the following are contributing factors to the development of cancer?

a) random DNA mutations

b) aging

c) reactive oxygen species

d) A and B

e) All of the above


10.  Suppose you need to get an x-ray. If the x-ray technician stands eight feet away from you during the x-ray exposure, how much less of a dose of ionizing radiation would the technician receive relative to standing five feet away?

a) 1/4 the original exposure

b) 25/64 the original exposure

c) 64/25 the original exposure

d) there is no difference in exposure

e) the difference cannot be calculated from the information given

Answers: 1-D, 2-A, 3-D, 4-B, 5-D, 6-C, 7-D, 8-A, 9-E, 10-B