Men With Female Pen Names
By Madeleine McLean (2023)
The romance fiction industry is not solely by women or for women. Historically, both men and women have written romance novels, sometimes even together. Be that as it may, it is also important to note the modern industry is largely dominated by women. Romance writer, Barbara Samuel, defends the romance novel as a vehicle for feminist discussion. Samuel finds in writing romance she can, “write freely and deeply about emotion, which concerns women very much, and doesn’t interest men much at all.” However, in response to the mention of men, Samuel’s statement might be missing a quantifier. In fact, men have reached incredibly high feats of success in the romance industry whether that be as writers, editors, literary agents, or publishers. Two of these men in particular approached the industry with the use of pen names that not only disguised their real names, but also made them present to readers as women. Tom Huff and Harold Lowry were arguably considered some of, if not the most popular romance authors of the late 20th century. Although probably most recognizable to readers by their pen names, Jennifer Wilde and Leigh Greenwood respectively. Drawing on popular news and magazine publications, such as Publisher’s Weekly, New York Times and Romantic Times Magazine, this essay will display the scale of the success and impact Tom Huff and Harold Lowry had on the US romance fiction industry in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Analyzing contemporary book reviews, articles, and advertisements, this essay will show that Huff and Lowry achieved both success and popularity under their female pen names as authors in the romance industry, receiving criticisms and accolades irrespective of their genders. Additionally, this essay will ponder the extent to which, if any, the use of female pen names played in their success.
Jennifer Wilde, one of the most successful romance authors of the 70s and 80s, played a major role in the popularization of paperback originals. An advertorial for Jose Yglesias’ Passion’s Promise describes the history of the trend in publishing paperback originals following the “boom” that Kathleen Woodiwiss’ The Flame and the Flower kickstarted, going on to say, “The category could be said to be firmly established when Larry Kirschbaum at Warner published Jennifer Wilde’s Love’s Tender Fury.” As an advert, Wilde’s novel, The Slipper is also given a feature alongside a picture of the real author himself, Tom Huff. The cover of the novel featured a signature “torrid embrace”, something many romance paperback originals’ covers began to display in order to continue a standard that romance readers began to expect. While written pseudonymously by Tom Huff, the cover of The Slipper (along with Wilde’s other novels) is attributed to the pen name, “Jennifer Wilde,” no mention of Tom Huff. If a reader were to grab a copy of The Slipper to further inspect the cover, they would see a romance novel supposedly written by a woman named Jennifer Wilde.
Wilde exploded into fame to readers both domestically and internationally. In 1976, German publisher, Pabel, bought the rights to Warner best seller, Love’s Tender Fury. Understanding the context of US originating paperbacks’ lack of availability outside of the US English market, makes this an even more exceptional feat. Paul S. Nathan of Publisher’s Weekly writes that, “The big, lush costume romances that have found favor in this country have caused no stampedes among publishers overseas competing for translation rights.” This was partly due to extra fees these publishers would have to incur such as costly, long translations that would force publishers to hike up (up to two times) the price of these “soft-covered books” meant to be cheaply available. Another issue deterring international publishers was the distinctly American setting adding extra work for translators to either find cultural similarities, somehow explain or leave out historical details. Love’s Tender Fury broke this barrier as Pabel planned to strategically market the book in order to “counter possible resistance to the higher price,” by releasing it in “two volumes, the first half this year, the second half as a ‘sequel’ in ‘77.” The availability of the novel in German markets as well as a carefully made marketing plan propelled Wilde’s name outside of only US stardom.
While on the cover “Jennifer Wilde” would be the well-known moniker, in other sectors, the facade was always known. A 1976 New York Times article titled, “Paper Back Talk,” mentioned, “Love’s Tender Fury, a Warner book by a Texan writing under the name of Jennifer Wilde, is No. 3 on the best seller list and has 1,275,000 copies in print.” While not explicitly naming Tom Huff as the man behind the pseudonym, the publishing industry even outside of romance seemingly knew the truth. Another article in the New York Times, “Publishers Find Romances Pay: Jennifer Wilde Lives with His Mother,” refers to Jennifer Wilde again hinting at a man behind the “woman.”
The September/October 1981 edition of the Romantic Times announced on its cover, “Jennifer Wilde Reveals Himself!” The November 13, 1981 edition of Publisher’s Weekly carried a Romantic Times advertisement highlighting Jennifer Wilde among other famous romance authors and concluding with, “Did you know that Jennifer is really Tom Huff of Fort Worth Texas?” and a picture in the advertisement of that exact 1981 Romantic Times cover. A decade later, the February 1992 edition of the Romantic Times featured an article on the reveal of Leigh Greenwood. To the Romantic Times audience, Wilde and Greenwood unveiled themselves to actually be middle aged white men. However, this reveal was hardly a big revelation to everyone. To many in the romance community, their identities were more of an open secret. Lowry said it himself, “My identity has never been hidden.” In fact, Lowry was an active member of the RWA even before ever publishing.
The reception to their revelations elicited different responses. Not everyone agreed with the idea of a man writing romance novels let alone a man masquerading under a woman’s name to write romance novels. Lowry divulged in his self-revelation article, “I knew when I sold my first book that it would have to be published under a pseudonym—Leigh Greenwood.” He said this despite the fact that, “From the very beginning, the people in my local chapter of Romance Writers of America in Charlotte knew I was a man.” He claimed that readers had told him they would not read a romance novel written by a man. Even his fellow authors had advised him that some editors might be reluctant to purchase a romance written by a man. Lowry came to the conclusion that, “Clearly, disclosing that I wasn’t a female was not a wise thing to do.”
Harold Lowry’s hesitance and reluctance to reveal himself was not an unfounded feeling. Madeleine Brent, author of Merlin’s Keep (the 1975 winner of best romance novel of the year), later unveiled himself as Peter O’Donnell in the January 1997 Romantic Times. O’Donnell affirmed the fears Lowry had years prior when Brent jilted the 1975 awards ceremony and mysteriously disappeared from the romance scene for a time following. O’Donnell feared the in-person reactions to his award acceptance, while Lowry, and potentially also Huff, feared the responses a reveal might provoke in their readers. Knowing the authors of their beloved stories were men, would readers stop buying books? Could that be the end of Brent, Wilde, and Greenwood?
There were some who took issue with male writers like Huff and Greenwood writing romances, specifically with the depictions of women made in writing a story often centered around a heroine. Lowry writes of his experience on The Jenny Jones Show noting “Ms. Jones” to be a “well-known feminist” and admittedly concerned for the treatment he might receive. Lowry notes a few “verbal quips” though none in which he could not offer his own counter quip. Lowry describes the upcoming scene with a tone of impending doom.
“She read two sentences from the first love scene in Sweet Temptation, and then asked me in front of an almost entirely female audience, how I could defend writing a scene where the hero virtually rapes the heroine.”
Lowry attempted to defend the work, “If you’ve read Sweet Temptation, you know this is Sara Raymond’s wedding night. She loves Gavin … but she is innocent and scared.” Initially upset by her newly betrothed’s roughness, Sara would spend the novel finding out how to satisfy her husband. Lowry was trying to say that the love scene was being taken out of context and that one would need to read the whole scene before placing judgement. As he recalls, “It was made to appear that only a male writer would write such a callous, insensitive scene.” However, Lowry was not the only contemporary romance author to use a love scene of questionable sexual consent in a love story, yet some took issue with not only the scene itself but also with the fact it was written by a man. Feminist author of Chretien de Troyes, Gratian, and the Medieval Romance of Sexual Violence, Kathryn Gravdal, writes that, “In several national and period literatures we find disagreements about whether an author’s gender affects or determines his or her narrative use of rape.” To some feminists, Lowry writing about an incredibly uncomfortable experience for the heroine that was specific to her sex, was unacceptable. Others, were able to distinguish the scene from reality as Gravdal puts it, “literature consists of artistic representations rather than physical acts, fictional texts rather than historical events,” and would be why “many literary critics argue sexual violence in the literary text should not be related or compared to the actual crime.”
While Lowry and others assumed the response from readers was that women would not purchase a romance written by a man, the actual reaction in the romance writers’ community was largely indifferent in respect to gender. From the release of his first novel, The Master of Phoenix Hall (1968), to his final published novel, They Call Her Dana (1989), Tom Huff spent his career continuing to write best-selling romance novels as well as remaining active in Romance Writers of America and Romantic Times Conferences. Harold Lowry was still a great writer of romance like many of his female colleagues, and he was not the first to reveal himself. Lowry was elected to the board of Romantic Writers of America, appearing before thousands of women with “no undercurrent of prejudice”. He attested to have been met with nothing but warm acceptance.
In the summer of 1983, publishers Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller approached Harry Hoffman, the CEO of Waldenbooks, with an idea of “‘signed collectors’ editions of popular fiction … a Franklin Mint’-type publishing program featuring (instead of ‘serious’ authors) Rosemary Rogers, Jennifer Wilde, and Stephen King.” One could gather that as authors of romance and mystery, these authors were not considered serious enough in the context of the larger literary community. Regardless, Huff and Lowry remained true to their motivations as romance writers. Huff describes his motivations in saying, “In college I wrote literary masterpieces, then I grew up. I write what people want to read and I try to bring them pleasure and satisfaction.” Lowry describes being a romance writer as “a lot on fun. I get to do what I enjoy, work at home in shorts and a T-shirt, and get paid for it … I came late to the game, but like most converts, I came to it with a passion.”
Following their revelations, Huff and Lowry continued to publish under their female pen names and achieve success as authors in the romance industry. Their novels retained loyal audiences as well as attracted many new readers. Romantic Times reviewer, Jill Brager, praised Greenwood’s Daisy as “another phenomenon to his Seven Brides Series” carrying a tale sure to be loved by “fans of the series, as well as new readers.” Wilde’s novels have been reprinted multiple times and have spent several weeks on best-seller lists. Love’s Tender Fury was reprinted 41 times and Dare to Love spent 11 weeks on the New York Times paperback best-seller list.
Beyond profitable sales, reviews added to the authors’ prestige as effective and appreciated writers of romance. Barbara Bannon reviewed The Slipper in the Fiction section of the New York Times attributing “Ms. Wilde’s great sense of pace, her flair for color,” and “her sense of humor” as contributing to the romance’s entertainment quality. On skill, Bannon adds that Wilde “knows how to gently spoof her own style and genre.” Jill Brager reviews another Greenwood novel in the September 1999 Romantic Times, this time The Cowboys: Pete, describing the story as “tender and wonderful” as well as Greenwood’s writing as “well-written and engaging.” Kathe Robin in the September 1997 Romantic Times reviewed The Cowboys: Ward lauding “that special Greenwood touch.”
Through awards, the industry applauded the contribution of Huff and Lowry’s works. On April 17, 1982 in a crowded New York ballroom, a largely female audience, applauded as Jennifer Wilde accepted his award in the Historical Romance category from Rosemary Rogers. In the 200th issue of Romantic Times, Wilde’s Once More Miranda (1984) makes the list of 200 all-time favorites. Greenwood’s Daisy was nominated for the Romantic Times 1994-1995 Reviewer’s Choice Award. Greenwood’s Iris as well as several of his other novels were Romantic Times Award Nominees. Lowry himself as Greenwood won the Americana Historical Romance Romantic Times Career Award for 1994-1995 as well as the Maggie Award. 
Even reviews that were more critical and less positive treat Huff and Lowry as regular authors, critiquing their writing abilities as authors and not particularly their romance writing abilities as men. In the July 1999 Romantic Times review of The Winner’s Circle, Shannon Short critiques Greenwood saying the “pacing is slow and the storyline wanders.” The January 6, 1975 Publisher’s Weekly Forecasts reviews Jamintha by Beatrice Parker (aka Tom Huff) remarking, “The premise of this Gothic is so full of holes that the story is not likely to satisfy even the least demanding of readers.” The authors were critiqued for their storytelling abilities with no explicit mention of their genders being a negative factor in their writing.
While Huff and Lowry stayed fixed to their written female personas, other male romance authors of the 1970s, 80s, and 90s used their real names and achieved their own versions of success. The Historical Romance review section of the July 1999 Romantic Times lists Hangman’s Point by Dean Barrett with four stars, which according to the ratings scale, equates to an “excellent.” This rating is on par with several of Leigh Greenwood’s novels such as The Cowboys: Sean reviewed in the April 1999 Romantic Times. Well known horror genre author, Stephen King, was featured in the January 1999 Romantic Times Under the Covers section for his novel Bag of Bones (1998) and for rumors of his dissatisfaction with an advance causing him to leave Viking for big-player, Simon & Schuster. While King is not most commonly known for romance, Bag of Bones received a feature in the Romantic Times as the novel contains a love story alongside its mystery aspect. Novelist, Gloria Naylor describes the story as, “a love story about the dark places within us all.” Other male authors — like Barrett and King — took the risk or were allowed the risk by their publishers to attribute their romances with their own names.
However, the choice of using a pseudonym was not always the author’s decision. Publishers like Harlequin insisted that writers use pseudonyms. As Richard Pollack explains it in What’s in a Pseudonym? Romance Slaves of Harlequin, the pen name offers an added novel mystery but mainly the reason for the insistence bares on a “plot aimed at keeping its stable of writers strictly tethered to the corporate hitching post.” Once an author signs on the dotted line, a publisher like Harlequin owns the pseudonym.
The use of a pen name is specific to the author and their motivations, which could range over a multitude of reasons. In Animating Creative Selves, Jessica Taylor highlights “both the importance of names as tools of career development for romance writers and writers’ anxieties about the trajectories of those careers.” Pen names can develop a brand built on the support of loyal audiences. Taylor makes the point that, “brand logics have expanded so widely that participation in them has become a prerequisite to participation in the market.” If pen names can be beneficial for brand building, perhaps then, the use of a female pen name makes a difference in the building of an author’s brand in the romance fiction industry.
Huff and Lowry fostered relationships cementing themselves as staple members of the romance writing community not soon to be forgotten. The 100th issue of Romantic Times Magazine thanked and honored many of the people who made the magazine possible as well as to the many authors who contributed over the years. The caption of a photo taken at the Phoenix Romantic Times Convention expressed, “We certainly miss Tom Huff aka Jennifer Wilde, seen here with Virginia Coffman … his last public appearance.” Huff passed away in 1990 receiving memoriam in Publisher’s Weekly. The July 1992 issue also gives credit to Huff’s place in the history of the historical romance genre. Following Avon’s success with ‘The Avon Ladies’ the profit potential “did not go unnoticed by other publishers, and the rush was on. Warner scored first with the tremendous success entitled Love’s Tender Fury (1976) by Jennifer Wilde – really a guy named Tom E. Huff.”
The authors’ impact also involved inherently diversifying the largely female industry. Funnily enough, in most sectors, one might not naturally think of white men contributing to diversity. In 1999, Zebra’s new innovation of bouquet romances contained Greenwood’s The Winner’s Circle in an attempt to “add diversity to a rather staid marketplace.” The bouquet would include a variety of new and experienced writers with decorative similar covers and Greenwood’s would be the first in the collection. Taking another perspective on the traditional romance novel, Greenwood’s The Cowboys: Chet is credited in a 1998 review with providing a romance written from the male point of view. Huff and Lowry often stood as the lone gentlemen in rooms full of women offering their own perspectives and ways of storytelling even within the traditional frameworks of romance paperbacks.
In many ways, Tom Huff and Harold Lowry helped the frameworks and success of mass market paperbacks. Huff and Lowry through their female pen names remain some of the most well-known and successful romance writers of the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. As such, their impact on the industry spanned not only their peak decades but continues on in their legacies. Huff’s works continued to be reprinted. Harold Lowry is still a working romance author living in Charlotte, North Carolina. The pen names show only one side to the story as there was a whole other side to these authors behind the scenes in the RWA and larger literary community.
 Barbara Samuel, 1997, “The Art of Romance Novels,” ParaDoxa 3, no. 1-2: 78-80. Reprinted in Contemporary Literary Criticism, edited by Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 206. Detroit, MI: Gale, 2005. Gale Literature Criticism.
 “Romance Fiction Still Forms the Closest Bonds Between Writer and Reader,” Publisher’s Weekly, August 25, 1989, pp. 13-22.
 Paul S. Nathan, “Rights and Permissions: Barrier Broken,” Publisher’s Weekly, June 28, 1976, p. 40.
 Nathan, “Rights and Permissions: Barrier Broken.”
 “Paperbacks: Paper Back Talk,” New York Times, May 23, 1976.
 N.R. Kleinfield, “Publishers Find Romances Pay: Jennifer Wilde Lives with His Mother,” New York Times, May 25, 1978.
 The Unofficial Romantic Times Index. “#2 (September/October 1981).” Accessed March 10, 2023.
 Romantic Times, “Now You Can Get All the Romantic News with New Romantic Times,” advertisement, Publisher’s Weekly, November 13, 1981, p. 59.
 Leigh Greenwood, “Leigh Greenwood Reveals Himself!” Romantic Times, February 1992, p. 52.
 Jean Marie Ward, “Leigh Greenwood: Real Men Write Romance,” Crescent Blues E-Magazine, [2001?].
 Greenwood, “Leigh Greenwood Reveals Himself!” Romantic Times, February 1992, p. 52.
 Kate Ryan, “The Elusive Madeleine Brent…Unveiled,” Romantic Times, January 1997, p. 8.
 Greenwood, “Leigh Greenwood Reveals Himself!”
 Greenwood, “Leigh Greenwood Reveals Himself!”
 Kathryn Gravdal, 1992, “Chretien de Troyes, Gratian, and the Medieval Romance of Sexual Violence,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society 17 (3): 558. doi:10.1086/494749.
 Gravdal, 1992, “Chretien de Troyes, Gratian, and the Medieval Romance of Sexual Violence,”
 Greenwood, “Leigh Greenwood Reveals Himself!”
 Paul S. Nathan, “Rights & Permissions: Collectors’ Editions,” Publisher’s Weekly, July 20, 1984, p. 34.
 Leigh Greenwood, “The Cowboys: Pete,” Romantic Times, September 1999, p. 16.
 Jill Brager, “Daisy,” Romantic Times, September 1995.
 Allen, Jennifer. “Reaping the Wild Rewards of Romance: Eight Who Write for Love of Money.” LIFE, November 1981.
 Barbara Bannon, “Fiction: The Slipper,” New York Times, November 22, 1987.
 Jill Brager, “The Cowboys: Pete,” Romantic Times, September 1999, p. 40.
 Kathe Robin, “The Cowboys: Ward,” Romantic Times, September 1997.
 “Romance Book Lovers Meeting a Sellout,” Publisher’s Weekly, May 7, 1982, pp. 15-16.
 “Reviewers’ All-Time Favorites,” Romantic Times, October 2000.
 Brager, September 1995, “Daisy.”
 “Reviewer’s Choice Awards: Nominees for Best Historical Romances November 1993 – October 1994,” Romantic Times, January 1995, pp. 44-45.
 “1994-1995 Career Achievement Awards,” Romantic Times, February 1996.
 Harlequin, “A Showcase Title from Harlequin Superromance: Only You,” advertisement, Romantic Times, September 1997, p. 93.
 Shannon Short, “The Winner’s Circle,” Romantic Times, July 1999.
 Barbara A. Bannon, “PW Forecasts: Jamintha,” Publisher’s Weekly, January 6, 1975, p. 51.
 “Historical Romance Reviews: Hangman’s Point,” Romantic Times, July 1999, p.37.
 Kathe Robin, “Historical Romance Reviews: The Cowboys: Sean,” Romantic Times, April 1999, p. 40.
 Flavia Knightsbridge, January 1999, “Under the Covers: Stephen King: ‘I Don’t Need Big Advances,” Romantic Times, p. 4.
 “Bag of Bones,” Works/Novels, Stephen King, https://stephenking.com/works/novel/bag-of-bones.html
 Richard Pollack, 1992, “What’s in a Pseudonym? Romance Slaves of Harlequin.” The Nation.
 Jessica Taylor, 2018, “Animating Creative Selves: Pen Names as Property in the Careers of Canadian and American Romance Writers,” American Ethnologist. https://doi.org/10.1111/amet.12603
 Kathryn Falk, July 1992, “Romantic Times Magazine Celebrates its 100th Issue,” Romantic Times, p. 4.
 Ibid, p. 6.
 “In Memoriam Tom Huff,” Publisher’s Weekly, February 16, 1990, p. 16.
 Falk, July 1992, “Romantic Times Magazine Celebrates its 100th Issue,” p. 10.
 Tara Gelsomino, “New Bouquet Romances and Fall in Love!” Romantic Times, July 1999, p. 12.
 Gelsomino, “New Bouquet Romances and Fall in Love!”
 Kathe Robin, “Historical Romance Reviews: The Cowboys: Chet,” Romantic Times, September 1998, pp. 40-41.
“1994-1995 Career Achievement Awards.” Romantic Times, February 1996.
“Bag of Bones.” Works/Novels, Stephen King. https://stephenking.com/works/novel/bag-of-bones.html.
Harlequin. “A Showcase Title from Harlequin Superromance: Only You.” Advertisement. Romantic Times, September 1997, p. 93.
“Historical Romance Reviews: Hangman’s Point.” Romantic Times, July 1999, p.37.
“In Memoriam Tom Huff.” Publisher’s Weekly, February 16, 1990, p. 16.
“Paperbacks: Paper Back Talk.” New York Times, May 23, 1976.
“Reviewers’ All-Time Favorites.” Romantic Times, October 2000.
“Reviewer’s Choice Awards: Nominees for Best Historical Romances November 1993 – October 1994.” Romantic Times, January 1995, pp. 44-45.
“Romance Book Lovers Meeting a Sellout.” Publisher’s Weekly, May 7, 1982, pp. 15-16.
“Romance Fiction Still Forms the Closest Bonds Between Writer and Reader.” Publisher’s Weekly, August 25, 1989, pp. 13-22.
Romantic Times. “Now You Can Get All the Romantic News with New Romantic Times.” Advertisement. Publisher’s Weekly, November 13, 1981, p. 59.
The Unofficial Romantic Times Index. “#2 (September/October 1981).” Accessed March 10, 2023.
Allen, Jennifer. “Reaping the Wild Rewards of Romance: Eight Who Write for Love of Money.” LIFE, November 1981.
Bannon, Barbara. “Fiction: The Slipper.” New York Times, November 22, 1987.
Bannon, Barbara A. “PW Forecasts: Jamintha.” Publisher’s Weekly, January 6, 1975, p. 51.
Brager, Jill. “Historical Romance Review: Daisy.” Romantic Times, September 1995.
Brager, Jill. “Historical Romance Review: The Cowboys: Pete.” Romantic Times, September 1999, p. 40.
Falk, Kathryn. “Romantic Times Magazine Celebrates its 100th Issue.” Romantic Times, July 1992, p. 4.
Gelsomino, Tara. “New Bouquet Romances and Fall in Love!” Romantic Times, July 1999, p. 12.
Gravdal, K. 1992. “Chretien de Troyes, Gratian, and the Medieval Romance of Sexual Violence.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society 17 (3): 558. doi:10.1086/494749.
Greenwood, Leigh. “Leigh Greenwood Reveals Himself!” Romantic Times, February 1992, p. 52.
Greenwood, Leigh. “The Cowboys: Pete.” Romantic Times, September 1999, p. 16.
Kleinfield, N.R. “Publishers Find Romances Pay: Jennifer Wilde Lives with His Mother.” New York Times, May 25, 1978.
Knightsbridge, Flavia. “Under the Covers: Stephen King: ‘I Don’t Need Big Advances.” Romantic Times, January 1999, p. 4.
Nathan, Paul S. “Rights and Permissions: Barrier Broken.” Publisher’s Weekly, June 28, 1976, p. 40.
Nathan, Paul S. “Rights & Permissions: Collectors’ Editions,” Publisher’s Weekly, July 20, 1984, p. 34.
Pollak, Richard. “What’s in a Pseudonym? Romance Slaves of Harlequin.” The Nation, 1992. https://archive.org/details/genderraceclassi0000dine/page/223/mode/1up.
Robin, Kathe. “Historical Romance Reviews: The Cowboys: Chet.” Romantic Times, September 1998, pp. 40-41.
Robin, Kathe. “Historical Romance Reviews: The Cowboys: Sean.” Romantic Times, April 1999, p. 40.
Robin, Kathe. “Historical Romance Reviews: The Cowboys: Ward.” Romantic Times, September 1997.
Ryan, Kate. “The Elusive Madeleine Brent…Unveiled,” Romantic Times, January 1997, p. 8.
Samuel, Barbara. 1997. “The Art of Romance Novels.” ParaDoxa 3, no. 1-2: 78-80. Reprinted in Contemporary Literary Criticism, edited by Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 206. Detroit, MI: Gale, 2005. Gale Literature Criticism.
Short, Shannon. “Historical Romance Reviews: The Winner’s Circle.” Romantic Times, July 1999.
Taylor, Jessica. “Animating Creative Selves: Pen Names as Property in the Careers of Canadian and American Romance Writers.” American Ethnologist, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/amet.12603