The following resources provide supplemental information that pertains to the topic in this module.

M Spinella (2001) The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medicine: Plant Drugs that Alter Mind, Brain, and Behavior. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

JA Nathanson, EJ Hunnicutt, L Kantham and C Scavone (1993) Cocaine as a naturally occurring insecticide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90:9645-9648.

RR Levine, CA Walsh and RD Schwartz-Bloom (2000) Pharmacology: Drug Actions and Reactions. 6th Edition, Parthenon Publishing (London)

RD Schwartz (1995) “The Brain and the Actions of Cocaine, Opiates and Marijuana”, Teaching Packet for Neuroscientists, Produced for NIDA.

G Gross de Nunez and RD Schwartz-Bloom (1997) “Animated Neuroscience & The Actions of Nicotine, Cocaine and Marijuana in the Brain”, 3-D Computer-Animated Video, SAVANTES, Durham, NC. Films for the Humanities and Sciences, Princeton, NJ.

A review of different types of alkaloids from various plants is found at the following websites. However, not all of the pharmacological information is correct.

Reference to diosgenin in Dioscorea (yams) is found as well at: