1. Animals such as rats enjoy nicotine just like humans. In experiments, rats will press a lever in a box to get an injection of nicotine. The pictures below shows a typical experiment. The 3 rats can press a lever to receive an injection of either A) water, B) water containing nicotine, or C) water containing half as much nicotine. After the experiment, in the lower panel, it shows how much nicotine each rat received.
Click on the picture below to see how often each rat presses the lever, and how much nicotine each rat receives. You may have to watch the animation closely a few times to see what’s happening.
How much nicotine does the rat on the right get when it presses the lever for the bottle containing half the amount of nicotine? Circle your answer.
- half as much as the rat gets in the middle panel
- twice as much as the rat gets in the middle panel
- the same as the rat gets in the middle panel
How fast did the rat on the right press the lever to get nicotine?
- half as fast as the rat pressed in the middle panel
- twice as fast as the rat pressed in the middle panel
- the same rate as the rat pressed in the middle panel
2. When Corey tried to cut down his smoking early on, he bought some “reduced-nicotine cigarettes”. He thought this would help him quit.
Do you think that he spent more or less money on cigarettes each week? ______
Explain: He had to smoke more reduced-nicotine cigarettes to get the same amount of nicotine that he’s used to getting, so he bought more.
3. From the list of chemicals below, write in which ones are found in each of the products shownin the table:
|Benzo[a]pyrene||Nicotine||Nitrosamines||Carbon Monoxide (CO)||Tar|
Hint: Be sure to consult your manual to determine how each of the products are formed (i.e., produced only when smoked, etc.) You may need to refer to Chapter 2 to answer parts of this question
|Smokeless Tobacco||Reduced- Nicotine/Tar Cigarette||Snus||Regular Cigarette||Nicotine Patch||Tobacco Lozenge|
4. There is one ingredient in all the products listed above that is common to each. What is it? Nicotine
Explain why this ingredient must be present in any product to ensure that someone would want to use that product.
Nicotine causes a pleasurable feeling, and helps the user want to use it again.
Give 2 reasons why this ingredient is harmful:
- It is addictive
- It can promote cancer growth or it can cause high blood pressure/heart disease
5. By now you have probably figured out why Corey received more carcinogens when he switched from smoking to smokeless tobacco. What could explain this?
He held the smokeless tobacco in his mouth for a long time, increasing his exposure to nitrosamines (NNK). Also, if there was less nicotine in the smokeless tobacco, he used more packets to get the level of nicotine he needed, exposing him to higher levels of carcinogens such as NNK.