Navigating high speed internet providers’ spectrum of services


In the United States, there are approximately 2675 internet service providers (ISPs) providing various types of internet services categorized based on the means through which data is transferred.  The state of New York currently has 41 internet providers, and it is the 4th most connected state amongst the others. In most states, consumers are able to access to a variety of types of internet services, including DSL, cable, fiber and satellite-based internet services, each of those has its own defining features. Hence, confusion often arises when it comes to choosing one from these internet services, the process of which can be made simpler by understanding how the Internet works and how these services differ from one to another. Spectrum is the second largest internet provider in the United States. Spectrum is accessible to approximately 102.7 million people and provides both cable and fibre internet services. Its tiered pricing system is easy to understand, and it is what makes them stand out from the other competitors. They utilize a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC) network to deliver wired broadband services. 

The Internet is a massive network of interconnected devices for data transmission purposes by means of the use of various types of wires, cables and antennas, alongside other types of devices forming part of the overall network infrastructure. Most computers come with built-in TCP/IP network capability. TCP/IP, which is Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol in full, is the language of the Internet. Comprising of four distinct layers, it is a set of standardized rules that enable TCP/IP-enabled computers on a network to communicate. Software programs interact with the application layer, the first layer, on which one can find numerous application protocols, including SMTP, FTP, HTTP and so forth. Different programs communicate with different application protocols, depending on the purposes of the programs. 

On the second layer, known as the transport layer, data sent from the first layer is divided into packets and these packets are delivered to the third layer, called the Internet Layer. On this layer, the assigned Internet Protocol (IP) gets the packets from the second layer and adds virtual address information, which is the IP addresses of the sender and receiver. The packets are then sent to the fourth layer. The fourth layer is the network interface layer that gets the packets, called datagrams on this layer, and deliver them over the network. Between two computers, the speed of datagram sending and receiving is affected by two factors, bandwidth and latency. Bandwidth is the maximum number of bits that can be transferred per unit time. Whereas, latency is the amount of time it requires for a datagram to travel from the source to the destination. Theoretically, the size of a TCP datagram is approximately 64 bytes. 

Currently, consumers in the U.S. are able to choose from a number of kinds of internet services, ranging from DSL to satellite-based services, with each of these available types having its own pros and cons. DSL stands for digital subscriber line and is a type of connection that transfers data through a telephone network via a telephone cable consisting of twisted-pair copper wires. It is the most famous connection globally. However, it has a low bandwidth with a high latency, offering download speeds in the range of 5 to 35 Mbps, with the upload speeds being in the 1 to 10 Mbps range. The main advantage of this connection type is that it is often the cheapest internet service in comparison with the others. 

Another type of connection is known as a cable connection. It transmits data through a cable television network via a coaxial copper cable. This connection is faster than DSL and highly reliable, with a higher bandwidth and lower latency. However, it sometimes slows down during peak hours due to the arrangement of its network infrastructure and is generally more expensive than a DSL connection. In terms of a wired internet connection, a fiber optic connection is the fastest and a relatively new type of internet connection. Having the highest bandwidth and lowest latency, it transfers data through a fiber optic network, offering download and upload speeds up to 1,000 Mbps. However, it is comparatively the most expensive alternative. 

In areas where wired connections are unavailable, connecting to the Internet is possible through a satellite connection. Data is transferred from one computer wirelessly through the connected satellite dish to the provider’s satellite spacecraft, and the signal then bounces back from the satellite spacecraft to the provider’s satellite dish. However, with the lowest bandwidth and highest latency, it is considered as the slowest and most unreliable internet connection, and the maximum bandwidth that it can achieve is only around 25 Mbps. 

The fiber optic internet is currently the fastest internet service available. However, cable connections are still widely used by Americans due to their affordability and performance. When choosing an internet service provider, it is necessary to ascertain your budget constraints, speed requirements and connection reliability expectations. Considering these factors during the selection process will help you opt for one that you will not regret in future. 

Dutch Researchers Rank Higher than the Top 10 Most Research-intensive Nations in Key Research


When it comes to ranking a nation and its researchers high in the list of global researches, there is a set of prerequisites that they ought to fulfill. Apart from being proven productive and efficient in the works submitted, the chief objective of the researchers must be to abide by all the constituents that would take his country forward along with placing it on the world map of integrated advancement and add to the overall value of its education system and uplift the present awareness and understanding of the same. 

In the recent past, reports that were conducted with an aim to announce the outcome of a comparative study based on Dutch researcher’s international performance and comprised of straps from scientific, technical and medical information products and services asserted that in a comparison that included the top 10 nations placed in order of their annual spending in research and development, the Netherlands ranked number one. Furthermore, the Dutch researchers were declared to be placed at a position higher than all its contemporaries in terms of their publication impact per article and effectiveness in international collaboration. However, the list of achievements associated with the Netherlands in the field of educational research doesn’t make halt here; it moves on to place the country at number one in the world as far as citations generated per unit of Resource and Development spending is concerned and at number two in case of publications generated per unit of R&D spending. All these digits and configurations were duly verified and submitted at the Impact of Science Conference held in Amsterdam.

After browsing through all these technical facts, if we start exploring the components that in reality led to this glaring success of the Netherlands amidst the top 10 most research-intensive nations in key research, we will come across the two major ones that form an indispensable portion of any research-driven study. Firstly, in the past few years, the Netherlands ‘ international collaboration and initiation of a geographically mobile research base were invariably high with almost little or no exceptions. A sum total of about 48.7% of the number of articles submitted by a Netherlands-based researcher were delineated in collaboration with a researcher who hailed from a distinct country altogether. In any research technique, international collaboration is always studied under a positive light and justifiably so. Coming back to our evaluation, the constituting figure of 48.7% is inevitably a higher proportion when placed alongside any of the top 10 R&D spending nations of the world. Like we have already mentioned, international collaboration is always considered to be a positive driving force when it comes to laying a generous impact on the research impact and prestige. 

The second factor which analysts qualify as a highly influential ingredient in positing the Netherlands at the top of the list is the mobile research base. This mechanism of research is related to the term that we call “brain circulation”, or in simpler terms, cross-border mobility of researchers. As per the guidelines of this method, the country allows and aids its researchers to explore distinct notches of educations and the fields that they are related to both in the national and international realms. When a scholar is pursuing his research, it is not customary for him to limit his mode of investigation within the resources available in his country; and therefore, he is free to examine the funds supplied by its collaborators. The Netherlands has always been known and been in history for allowing people to move in and out of the country, even when it comes to pursuing the assets in the world of science. For instance, there has been a record of at least 74% of affiliated authors with the Dutch universities who have successfully published their research articles in an institution situated in another country at some point in their careers.

After analyzing the above-mentioned influences we can safely conclude that the rank that has been granted to the Netherlands in the paraphernalia of global educational research has been rightly earned by the Dutch scholars. A notion that we have all believed and been taught since our childhood is that there is no end to learning; a man, no matter how learned or well informed he is, cannot guarantee a full-fledged demonstration of the same. Therefore, when it comes to dealing with a serious matter like that of research, steering away from the implications of international collaboration and mobile research base cannot be waived. Injecting profound shreds of information like no other and enriching the study with lesser-known facts and SEO approved content is the key to illustrating a worthy research paper that is capable of representing the educational trends and recourses of its country.

Mass Extinction Halted by Wine Industry


It might sound far fetched, but Dr Olga Barbosa of Austral University said in a seminar that viticulture – or the cultivation of grapes – “can be a partner to solve the problem of mass extension”. This is great news to wineries and the wine industry as they are instrumental in enhancing species’ richness through driving biodiversity through their farms or wine estates.

She noted that our planet is entering what seems like the sixth mass extinction, which is caused by development and human civilization’s crass and crude way of dealing with nature. If it’s in the way, we cut it down. Even if it’s merely sharing our planet and not affecting us in our lives, we are affecting theirs by polluting the planet with toxins and plastic, effectively killing marine life by the millions every day. But the most hurtful thing we do to our planet happens in our daily life: driving a car, open burning, the cultivation of cows. They release up to 120kg of methane per year which is a “potent greenhouse gas”, according to National Geographic. Researchers are trying their best to modify their gut in order to put a stopper to this problem which contributes to 14% of global warming.

The scientist says that wineries could help mitigate climate change, as wine estates are both environmentally-sensitive and a wonder to the ecosystem. Since nature functions on some form of pollination – meaning that the world is inextricably linked with one another – the wine industry is able to provide natural pest control while at the same time, completing nutrient cycles to benefit their vine growth. In layman terms, what they need to do to improve their growth and produce will in turn, fertilize the earth in a biodiversifying manner. She calls this “ecosystem services” and noted how rich the soil of vineyards are.

She stresses that it is important that wineries should be promoted for the sake of their biodiversity in viticulture and she goes on to say that viticulture “should be a goal for the wine industry”. Her organization is looking into how they can enhance biodiversity which not only will help keep the world running, but also by sequestering carbon dioxide.

Agriculture has always played a large part in being both the problem and the solution to the greenhouse effect. By cutting into the environment and developing it for human use such as farms and wineries, it spoils the delicate ecosystem that supports life on earth. There are better ways that doesn’t include wrecking the planet and is regenerative instead. The problem with employing this all over is that there is no one size fits all program.

One has to consider the biological and sociological factors when transforming it into sustainable farming. Since every farm in every country is unique to its own, scientists have to create systems which are flexible and are able to support every different sort of setting. For instance, what is sustainable for a farmer rearing livestock in America is a lot different from what a farmer is doing in another part of the world, such as working in a paddy field in Asia. They will need very specific and different sets of systems to make their livelihood sustainable.

In this way, wine benefits not only human health but the health of the planet. By diversifying what is in the soil, it also enriches the taste of the wine itself. But the best part of it is that the environment will be the one to benefit from the nutrient rich land. It is also interesting to note how intrinsically linked the taste of wine is to the environment. Studies show that climate change actually plays a part in how it tastes. The heatwave of 1540 was so gruesome that grapes withered into raisins on their vines and created a pungent and extra sweet wine. Today, the wine rivals that of the one made from the harvest from that summer in 1540, telling us just how much global warming is upon us now.

Winemakers have been recording details of their harvest since the middle ages as when one harvests the grapes is the key factor in how the wines will turn out. Historians discovered that these careful records are instrumental in helping us determine the rate of change in climate. Depending on how soon the harvests are done, it tells scientists today what the climate was like during their time as grapes are sensitive to their environment. Too hot and they ripen quickly, too cold and it will take longer for it to be ready for harvest.

Scientists have been able to determine that with all the spikes throughout the ages, climate change is only seriously taking hold in recent times. During the “Medieval Warm Period” which lasted from 900 to 1300, central Europe was a lot warmer and it cooled down from 1500 to 1900, during what is called the “Little Ice Age”, however, according to these records, the weather has been consistently warm since the 1980s and in the last 16 years, the temperature has shot up. With everything the wine industry can help the planet with, it cannot control climate change and people have to adopt a more sustainable way of living if they hope to continue enjoying wine and life as it is.