Pendergast Lab Publications

Journals:

  • Hattaway Luttman, J., Hoj J.P., Lin, K.H., Lin J., Gu, J.J., Rouse, C., Nichols, A.G., MacIver, N.J., Wood, K.C., and Pendergast, A.M. (2021). ABL allosteric inhibitors synergize with statins to enhance apoptosis of metastatic lung cancer cells. Cell Reports 2021 Oct 26;37(4):109880. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109880. PMID: 34706244. PMCID: PMC8579324.
  • Hoj, J.P, Mayro, B., and Pendergast, A.M. (2020). The ABL2 kinase regulates an HSF1-dependent transcriptional program required for lung adenocarcinoma brain metastasis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, first published December 14, 2020; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2007991117. PMID: 33318173.
  • Gu, J.J., Hoj, J., Rouse, C., and Pendergast, A.M. (2020). Mesenchymal stem cells promote metastasis through activation of an ABL-MMP9 signaling axis in lung cancer cells. PLoS One 15 (10): e0241423. PMCID: PMC7595271; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0241423.
  • Hoj, J., Mayro, B., and Pendergast, A.M. (2019). A TAZ-AXL-ABL2 feed-forward signaling axis promotes lung adenocarcinoma brain metastasis. Cell Reports (Cell Press) 29 (11): 3421-3434. PMID:31825826; PMCID: PMC7254883.
  • Khatri, A., Kraft, B.D., Tata, P.R., Randell, S.H., Piantadosi, C.A., and Pendergast, A.M. (2019). ABL kinase inhibition promotes lung regeneration through expansion of SCGB1A1+ SPC+ cell population following bacterial pneumonia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2019 January 29; 116 (5): 1603-1612. PMCID: PMC6358689.
  • Fecci, P., Champion, C.D., Hoj, J., McKernan, C.M., Goodwin, C.R., Kirkpatrick, J.P., Anders, C.K., Pendergast, A.M., and Sampson, J.H. (2019). The Evolving Modern Management of Brain Metastasis. Clinical Cancer Res 25: 1-11. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432. CCR-18-1624. PMID: 31213459.
  • Khatri, A., Gu, J.J., McKernan, C.M., Xu, X., and Pendergast, A.M., (2019). ABL Kinase Inhibition Sensitizes Primary Lung Adenocarcinomas to Chemotherapy by Promoting Tumor Cell Differentiation. Oncotarget, vol. 10 (No. 20): 1874-1886. Priority Research Paper and Cover Article. PMCID: PMC6443011.
  • Gu, J.J., Rouse, C., Xu, X., Wang, J., Onaitis, M.W., and Pendergast, A.M. (2016). Inactivation of ABL kinases suppresses non-small cell lung cancer metastasis. JCI Insight 1(21): e89647. Doi:10.1172/jci.insight.89647. (PMCID: PMC5161211).
  • Wang, J., Rouse, C., Jasper, J.S., and Pendergast, A.M. (2016). ABL kinases promote breast cancer osteolytic metastasis by modulating tumor-bone interactions through TAZ and STAT5 signaling. Science Signaling 9 (issue 413): ra12. (Cover article of February 2, 2016 issue). (PMID: 26838548; PMCID: PMC4991033). http://stke.sciencemag.org/content/9/413/ra12.long
  • Wang, J. and Pendergast, A.M. (2015). The emerging role of ABL kinases in solid tumors. Trends in Cancer (Cell Press) 1: 110-123 (PMCID: PMC4669955).http://www.cell.com/trends/cancer/fulltext/S2405-8033(15)00005-9
  • Khatri, A., Wang, J., and Pendergast, A.M. (2016). Multifunctional Abl kinases in health and disease. J. Cell Sci. 129: 9-16. (PMCID: PMC4732293). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729027
  • C. Sourbier, C.J. Ricketts, S. Matsumoto, D.R. Crooks, P.-J. Liao, P.Z. Mannes, Y. Yang, M.-H. Wei, G. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, V. Chen, C.D. Vocke, M. Merino, R. Srinivasan, M.C. Krishna, J.B. Mitchell, Pendergast, A.M., T.A. Rouault, L. Neckers, W. M. Linehan (2014). Targeting ABL1-mediated Oxidative Stress Adaptation in Fumarate Hydratase-Deficient Cancer. Cancer Cell 26: 840-850. PMCID: PMC4386283.
  • Greuber E.K., Smith-Pearson, P., Wang, J., and Pendergast, A.M.. (2013). Role of ABL family kinases in cancer: from leukaemia to solid tumors. Nature Reviews Cancer 13: 559-571(PMCID:PMC3935732). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3935732/
  • Chislock, E.M., Ring, C., and Pendergast, A.M. (2013). Abl kinases are required for vascular function, Tie2 expression, and angiopoietin-1-mediated survival. PNAS 110: 12432-12437 (PMCID: PMC3725093).
  • Greuber, E.K., and Pendergast, A.M. (2012). Abl Family Kinases Regulate FcR-Mediated Phagocytosis in Murine Macrophages. J. Immunol. 189, 5382-5392. (PMCID: PMC3504141).
  • Gu, J.J., Lavau, C.P., Pugacheva, E., Soderblom, E.J., Moseley, M.A., and Pendergast, A.M. (2012). Abl Family Kinases Modulate T Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Chemokine-Induced Migration through the Adaptor HEF1 and the GTPase Rap1. Science Signaling 5, ra51. [DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2002632] (Cover article 17 July 2012 issue).
  • Li, R. and Pendergast, A.M. (2011). Arg Kinase Regulates Epithelial Cell Polarity by Targeting 1-Integrin and Small GTPase Pathways. Current Biology 21: 1534-1542. (PMCID: PMC3189484).
  • Ring, C., Ginsberg, M.H., Haling, J., and Pendergast, A.M. (2011). Abl-interactor-1 (Abi1) has a role in cardiovascular and placental development and is a binding partner of the 4 integrin. PNAS 108, 149-154. Epub Dec 20, 2010. (PMCID: PMC3017183). (Cover Article January 4, 2011 issue).
  • Smith-Pearson, P.S., Greuber, Greuber, E. K., Yogalingam, G., and Pendergast, A.M. (2010). Abl Kinases are required for invadopodia formation and chemokine-induced invasion. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 40201-40211. Epub Oct 11, 2010. (PMCID: PMC3001002).
  • Ryun Ryu, J., Echarri. A., Li, R., and Pendergast, A.M. (2009). Regulation of cell-cell adhesion by Abi/Diaphanous complexes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 29: 1735-1748. (PMCID: PMC2655615).
  • Gu, J.J., Ryun Ryu, J., and Pendergast, A.M. (2009). Abl Tyrosine Kinases in T cell signaling. Immunol. Rev. 228: 170-183. (PMCID: PMC2678244).
  • Yogalingam, G., and Pendergast, A.M. (2008). ABL kinases regulate autophagy by promoting the trafficking and function of lysosomal components. J. Biol. Chem. 283: 35941-35953. (PMCID: PMC2602914).
  • Augustine, C.K., Yoshimoto, Y., Gupta, M., Zipfel, P.A., Selim, M.A., Febbo, P., Pendergast, A.M., Peters, W.P., and Tyler, D.S. (2008). Targeting N-Cadherin enhances antitumor activity of cytotoxic therapies in melanoma treatment. Cancer Research 68: 3777-3784.
  • Jung, J.-H., Pendergast, A.M., Zipfel, P.A., and Traugh, J.A. (2008). Phosphorylation of c-Abl by Protein Kinase Pak2 Regulates Differential Binding of ABI2 and CRK. Biochemistry 47: 1094-1104.
  • Zandy, N.L., and Pendergast, A.M., (2008). Abl Tyrosine Kinases Modulate Cadherin-dependent Adhesion Upstream and Downstream of Rho Family GTPases. Cell Cycle 74: 444-448.
  • Gu, J.J., Zhang, N., He, Y.-H., Koleske, A.J., and Pendergast, A.M., (2007). Defective T cell development and function in the absence of Abl kinases. The Journal of Immunology 179: 7334-7343.
  • Zandy, N.L., Playford, M., and Pendergast, A.M., (2007). Abl Tyrosine Kinases regulate cell-cell adhesion via Rho GTPases. PNAS 104: 17686-17691. (PMCID: PMC2077043).
  • Tanos, B.E., and Pendergast, A.M., (2007). Abi-1 forms an epidermal growth factor-inducible complex with Cbl: role in receptor endocytosis. Cellular Signaling 19, 1602-1609.
  • Tanos, B., and Pendergast, A.M. (2006). Abl Tyrosine Kinase regulates endocytosis of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 32714-32723.
  • Zipfel, P.A., and Pendergast, A.M. (2006). Arg. AfCS-Nature Molecule Page (doi:10.1038/mp.a000324.01).
  • Zipfel, P.A., and Pendergast, A.M.. Abl1. AfCS-Nature Molecule Page (doi:10.1038/mp.a000161.01).
  • Zipfel, P.A., Bunnell, S.C., Witherow, D.S., Gu, J.J., Chislock, E.M., Ring, C., and Pendergast, A.M. (2006). Role for the Abi/Wave protein complex in T cell receptor-mediated proliferation and cytoskeletal remodeling. Current Biology 16, 35-46.
  • Burton, E.A., Pendergast, A.M., and Aballay, A. (2006).The Caenorhabditis elegans ABL-1 Tyrosine Kinase is required for Shigella flexneri pathogenesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 5043-5051.
  • Burton, E.A., Oliver, T.N., and Pendergast, A.M. (2005). Abl kinases regulate actin comet tail elongation via an N-WASP-dependent pathway. Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 8834-8843.
  • Zipfel, P.A., and Pendergast, A.M. (2005). Abi1. AfCS-Nature Molecule Page (doi:10.1038/mp.a002545.01).
  • Zipfel, P.A., and Pendergast, A.M. (2005). Abi2. AfCS-Nature Molecule Page (doi:10.1038/mp.a002546.01).
  • Pendergast, A.M. (2005). Stress and death: breaking up the c-Abl/14-3-3 complex in apoptosis. Nat. Cell Biol. 7, 213-214.
  • Grove, M., Demyanenko, G., Echarri, A., Zipfel, P.A., Quiroz, M.E., Rodriguiz, R.M., Playford, M., Martensen, S.A., Robinson, M. R., Wetsel, W.C., Maness, P.F., and Pendergast, A.M. (2004). Abi2-deficient mice exhibit defective cell migration, aberrant dendritic spine morphogenesis and deficits in learning and memory. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 10905-10922.
  • Zipfel, P.A., Zhang, W., Quiroz, M., and Pendergast, A.M. (2004). Requirement for Abl kinases in T cell receptor signaling. Current Biology 14, 1222-1231.
  • Plattner, R., Koleske, A.J., Kazlauskas, A., and Pendergast, A.M. (2004). Bidirectional signaling links the Abelson Kinases to the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 2573-2583.
  • Echarri, A., Lai, M.J., Robinson, M.R., and Pendergast, A.M. (2004). Abl Interactor 1 (Abi-1) Wave-binding and SNARE domains regulate its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, lamellipodium localization, and Wave-1 levels. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 4979-4993.
  • Advani, A.S., Dressman, H.K., Quiroz, M., Taylor, G.A., and Pendergast, A.M. (2004). Elevated expression of a subset of interferon-inducible genes in primary bone marrow cells expressing P185 Bcr-Abl versus P210 Bcr-Abl by DNA microarray analysis. Leukemia Research 28, 285-294.
  • Plattner, R., and Pendergast, A.M. (2003). Activation and signaling of the Abl tyrosine kinase: bidirectional link with phosphoinositide signaling. Cell Cycle, 2: 4, 273-274.
  • Burton, E.A., Plattner, R.,and Pendergast, A.M. (2003). Abl tyrosine kinases are required for infection by Shigella flexneri. EMBO J. 22, 5471-5479.
  • Plattner, R., Irvin, B.J., Guo, S., Blackburn, K., Kazlauskas, A., Abraham, R.T., York, J.D., and Pendergast, A.M. (2003). A new link between the c-Abl tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide signalling through PLC-1. Nature Cell Biology 5, 309-319.
  • Finn, A.J., Feng, G., and Pendergast, A.M.(2003). Postsynaptic requirement for Abl kinases in assembly of the neuromuscular junction. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 717-723.
  • Advani, A.S., and Pendergast, A.M. (2002). Bcr-Abl variants: biological and clinical aspects. Leukemia Research 26, 713-720.
  • Pendergast, A.M. (2002). The Abl family kinases: mechanisms of regulation and signaling. Advances in Cancer Research 85, 51-100.
  • Echarri, A., and Pendergast, A.M. (2001). Activated c-Abl is degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway. Current Biology 11, 1759-1765.
  • Stradal, T., Courtney, K.D., Rottner, K., Hahne, P., Small, J.V., and Pendergast, A.M. (2001). The Abl interactor proteins localize to sites of actin polymerization at the tips of lamellipodia and filopodia.Current Biology 11, 891-895.
  • Roig, J., Tuazon, P.T., Zipfel, P.A., Pendergast, A.M., and Traugh, J.A. (2000). Functional interaction between c-Abl and the p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 14346-14351.
  • Zipfel, P.A., Grove, M., Blackburn, K., Fujimoto, M., Tedder, T.F., and Pendergast, A.M. (2000).The c-Abl tyrosine kinase is regulated downstream of the B cell antigen receptor and interacts with CD19. J. Immunol.165, 6872-6879.
  • Quackenbush, R.C., Reuther, G.W., Miller, J.P., Courtney, K.D., Pear, W.S. and Pendergast, A.M. (2000). Analysis of the biological properties of P230 Bcr-Abl reveals unique and overlapping properties with the oncogenic P185 and P210 Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinases. Blood 95, 2913-2921.
  • Courtney, K.D., Grove, M., Vandongen, H., Vandongen, A., LaMantia, A.-S., and Pendergast, A.M. (2000). Localization and phosphorylation of Abl-interactor proteins, Abi-1 and Abi-2, in the developing nervous system. Mol. Cell. Neuroscience 16, 244-257.
  • Plattner, R., Kadlec, L., DeMali, K.A., Kazluskas, A. and Pendergast, A.M. (1999). C-Abl is activated by growth factors and Src family kinases and has a role in the cellular response to PDGF. Genes & Dev. 13, 2400-2411.
  • Dai, Z., Quackenbush, R. C., Courtney, K. D., Grove, M., Cortez, D., Reuther, G. W. and Pendergast, A.M. (1998). Oncogenic Abl and Src tyrosine kinases elicit the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of target proteins through a Ras-independent pathway. Genes & Dev. 12, 1415-1424.
  • Pear, W. S., Miller, J. P., Xu, L., Pui, J. C., Soffer, B., Quackenbush, R. C., Pendergast, A.M., Bronson, R., Aster, J. C., Scott, M. L. and Baltimore, D. (1998). Efficient and rapid induction of a CML-like myeloproliferative disease in mice receiving P210 bcr/abl- transduced bone marrow. Blood 92, 3780-3792.
  • Reuther, J. Y., Reuther, G. W., Cortez, D., Pendergast, A.M. and Baldwin, Jr., A. S. (1998). A requirement for NF-kB activation in Bcr-Abl-mediated transformation. Genes & Dev. 12, 968-981.
  • LaMontagne, Jr., K. R., Flint, A. J., Franza, Jr., B. R., Pendergast, A.M. and Tonks, N. K. (1998). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B antagonizes signalling by oncoprotein tyrosine kinase p210 bcr-abl in vivo. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 2965-2975.
  • Cortez, D., Reuther, G. and Pendergast, A.M. (1997). The Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase activates mitogenic signaling pathways and stimulates G1-to-S phase transition in hematopoietic cells. Oncogene 15, 2333-2342.
  • Kadlec, L. and Pendergast, A.M. (1997). The amphiphysin-like protein 1 (ALP1) interacts functionally with the c-ABL tyrosine kinase and may play a role in cytoskeletal regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 12390-12395.
  • Cortez, D., Stoica, G., Pierce, J. H. and Pendergast, A.M. (1996). The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibits apoptosis by activating a Ras-dependent signaling pathway. Oncogene, 13, 2589-2594.
  • Reuther, G. W. and Pendergast, A.M. (1996). The roles of 14-3-3 proteins in signal transduction. Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 52, pp 149-175. Academic Press.
  • Pendergast, A.M. (1996). Nuclear tyrosine kinases: from Abl to WEE1. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8, 174-181.
  • Gishizky, M.L., Cortez, D. and Pendergast, A.M. (1995). Mutant forms of growth factor-binding protein-2 reverse BCR-ABL-induced transformation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 10889-10893.
  • Dai, Z. and Pendergast, A.M. (1995). Abi-2, a novel SH3-containing protein interacts with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase and modulates c-Abl transforming activity. Genes & Dev. 9, 2569-2582.
  • Xie, Y., Pendergast, A.M. and Hung, M.-C. (1995). Dominant- negative mutants of Grb2 induce reversal of the transformed phenotypes caused by the point-mutation activated Rat HER2/Neu. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 30717-30724.
  • Cortez, D., Kadlec, L. and Pendergast, A.M. (1995). Structural and signaling requirements for BCR-ABL mediated transformation and inhibition of apoptosis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 5531-5541.
  • Reuther, G.W., Fu, H., Cripe, L.D., Collier, R.J. and Pendergast, A.M. (1994).Association of c-BCR and BCR-ABL with 14-3-3 family proteins. Science 266, 129-133.
  • Pendergast, A.M., Quilliam, L.A., Cripe, L.D., Bassing, C.H., Dai, Z., Li, N., Batzer, A., Rabun, K.M., Der, C.J., Schlessinger, J. and Gishizky, M.L. (1993). BCR-ABL-induced oncogenesis is mediated by direct interaction with the SH2 domain of the GRB-2 adaptor protein. Cell 75, 175-185.
  • Pendergast, A.M., Gishizky, M.L., Havlik, M.H. and Witte, O.N. (1993). SH1 domain autophosphorylation of P210 BCR/ABL is required for transformation but not growth factor-independence. Mol. Cell. Biol. 13, 1728-1736.
  • Goga, A., McLaughlin, J., Pendergast, A.M., Parmar, K., Muller, A., Rosenberg, N. and Witte, O.N. (1993). Oncogenic activation of cABL by mutation within its last exon. Mol. Cell. Biol. 13, 4967-4975.
  • Muller, A.J., Pendergast, A.M., Parmar, K., Havlik, M.H., Rosenberg, N. and Witte, O.N. (1993). En bloc substitution of the SH2 domain activates the transforming potential of the c-ABL protein tyrosine kinase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90, 3457-3461.
  • Muller, A.J., Pendergast, A.M., Havlik, M.H., Puil, L., Pawson, T. and Witte, O.N. (1992) A limited set of SH2 domains binds BCR through a high-affinity phosphotyrosine-independent interaction. Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 5087-5093.
  • Pendergast, A.M., Muller, A.J., Havlik, M.H., Clark, R., McCormick, F. and Witte, O.N. (1991) Evidence for regulation of the c-ABL tyrosine kinase by a cellular inhibitor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 5927-5931.
  • Pendergast, A.M., Muller, A.J., Havlik, M.H., Maru, Y. and Witte, O.N. (1991) BCR sequences essential for transformation by the BCR/ABL oncogene bind to the ABL SH2 regulatory domain in a non-phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. Cell 66, 161-171.
  • Gishizky, M.L., McLaughlin, J., Pendergast, A.M. and Witte, O.N. (1991) The 5’ non-coding region of the BCR/ABL oncogene augments its ability to stimulate the growth of immature lymphoid cells. Oncogene 6, 1299-1306.
  • Muller, A.J., Young, J.C., Pendergast, A.M., Pondel, M., Landau, N.R., Littman, D.R. and Witte, O.N. (1991) BCR first exon sequences specifically activate the BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase oncogene of Philadelphia chromosome-positive human leukemias. Mol. Cell. Biol. 11, 1785-1792.
  • Lugo, T.G., Pendergast, A.M., Muller, A.J. and Witte, O.N. (1990) Tyrosine kinase activity and transformation potency of BCR/ABL oncogene products. Science 247, 1079-1082.
  • Pendergast, A.M., Clark, R., Kawasaki, E.S., McCormick, F.P., and Witte, O.N. (1989) Baculovirus expression of functional p210 BCR/ABL oncogene product. Oncogene 4, 759-766.
  • Ponzetto, C., Wadewitz, A., Pendergast, A.M., Witte, O.N. and Wolgemuth, D.J. (1989) P150c-abl is detected in mouse male germ cells by an in vitro kinase assay and is associated with stage-specific phosphoproteins in haploid cells. Oncogene 4, 685-690.
  • Clark, S.S., McLaughlin, J., Timmons, M., Pendergast, A.M., Ben-Neriah, Y., Dow, L.W., Crist, W., Rovera, G., Smith, S.D. and Witte, O.N. (1988) Expression of a distinctive BCR-ABL oncogene in Ph1-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Science 239, 775-777.
  • Pendergast, A.M., Traugh, J.A. and Witte, O.N. (1987) Normal cellular and transformation-associated ABL proteins share common sites for protein kinase C phosphorylation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 7, 4280-4289.
  • Pendergast, A.M., Venema, R.C. and Traugh, J.A. (1987) Regulation of phosphorylation of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the high molecular weight core complex in reticulocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 5939-5942.
  • Pendergast, A.M. and Traugh, J.A. (1986) Identification of three protein kinases which phosphorylate threonyl-tRNA synthetase from rat liver. FEBS 206, 335-338.
  • Pendergast, A.M. and Traugh, J.A. (1985) Alteration of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activities by phosphorylation with casein kinase I. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11769-11774.

Chapters in books:

  • Pendergast, A.M. (2005). Role of Abl Family Kinases in Growth Factor-mediated Signaling. In Abl Family Kinases in Development and Disease. T. Koleske (Editor), Landes Bioscience, pp. 11-15.
  • Pendergast, A.M. (2001). BCR/ABL protein domain function and signaling. In Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: Biology and Treatment. Martin Dunitz, Ltd., London, pp. 19-39.
  • Witte, O.N., Kelliher, M., Muller, A., Pendergast, A.M., Gishizky, M., McLaughlin, J., Sawyers, C., Maru, Y., Shah, N., Denny, C. and Rosenberg, N. (1991). Role of the BCR-ABL oncogene in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome positive leukemias. In Origins of Human Cancer: A Comprehensive Review J. Brugge, T. Curran, E. Harlow, F. McCormick (Ed.) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp. 521-526.
  • Pendergast, A.M. and Witte, O.N. (1987). Role of the ABL oncogene tyrosine kinase activity in human leukaemia. In Balliere’s Clinical Haematology, Vol. 1, No. 4. Balliere Tyndall/W.B. Saunders, London, pp. 1001-1020.
  • Traugh, J.A. and Pendergast, A.M. (1986). Regulation of protein synthesis by phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Prog. Nucl. Acids Res. Mol. Biol. 33, 195-230.