In 2010, the World Health organization released a new set of guidelines for treatment. For patients with uncomplicated malaria, treatment with oral artemisinins in combination with other antimalarials (called artemisinin-based combination therapy, or ACT) is typically effective. For patients with severe malaria, intravenous or intramuscular injections of artesunate are followed by oral regimens of ACT, quinine or other medications. Treatments may varying depending on the species of parasite and drug resistances.
Despite decades of research, no vaccine currently exits that is effective against malaria, although recent developments may prove promising.
As emphasized by the World Health Organization, vector control remains the most generally effective measure to prevent malaria transmission. Two commonly used and effective approaches in the vector control of mosquitoes are:
- Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) used to cover beds at night and over clothing.
- Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) of the walls of homes and other buildings.
Little controversy concerns the use of insecticide treated bednets. But there is great concerns about the health effects of IRS, particularly spraying with DDT, which has been shown to be the most effective among the various anti-mosquito pesticides available.