Measures for Research

In the process of doing my research over the past 40 years, I developed several scales that may be useful to other researchers. Some of these scales have been used many times and have a good deal of evidence to support their validity and usefulness. Others have been used only a few times but have nonetheless performed well.

These scales may be used for research purposes without permission. If you use a scale in your research, please cite the original source of the scale listed below.

Interaction Anxiousness Scale

Leary, M. R. (1983). Social anxiousness: The construct and its measurement. Journal of Personality Assessment, 47, 66-75.

Note: This article describes two scales, the Interaction Anxiousness Scale and the Audience Anxiousness Scale. However, only the Interaction Anxiousness Scale has received widespread use and has a body of data to support its validity (see Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. [1993]. The Interaction Anxiousness Scale: Construct and criterion-related validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 61, 136-146.) Thus, at present, I can recommend the Interaction Anxiousness Scale but can not attest to the merits of the Audience Anxiousness Scale. (Fortunately, there are other good measures of audience anxiety, speech anxiety, and stage fright available.)

Interaction Anxiousness

Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale

Leary, M. R. (1983). A brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 371-376.

Brief FNE

Need to Belong Scale

Leary, M. R., Kelly, K. M., Cottrell, C. A., & Schreindorfer, L. S. (2013). Individual differences in the need to belong: Mapping the nomological network. Journal of Personality Assessment.


Blushing Propensity Scale

Leary, M. R., & Meadows, S. (1991). Predictors, elicitors, and concomitants of social blushing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 254-262.


Hurt Feelings Scale

Leary, M. R., & Springer, C. (2001). Hurt feelings: The neglected emotion. In R. M. Kowalski (Ed.), Aversive behaviors and relational transgressions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Hurt feelings

Belief in Oneness Scale

Diebels, K. J., & Leary. M. R. (2019) The psychological implications of believing that everything is one. Journal of Positive Psychology, 14, 463-473,

Belief in Oneness

Impostorism Scale

Leary, M. R., Patton, K., Orlando, A., & Funk, W. W. (2000). The impostor phenomenon: Self-perceptions, reflected appraisals, and interpersonal strategies. Journal of Personality, 68, 725-756.


Social Physique Anxiety Scale

Hart, E. A., Leary, M. R., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). The measurement of social physique anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 94-104.