The rise of male migration to the cities in the latter half of the 19th century changed the shape of the lakou system. As a result of Haitian urbanization, the lakou adapted itself to the urban environment, resurfacing in the slums of Port au Prince and in expatriate communities abroad. According to Alta Stevens, the lakou has become de-territorialized. In the wake of urbanization and modernization, the concept of the lakou has increasingly become that of the extended family with the family group as the core decision-maker. Despite these changes, the core themes associated with the lakou—of hierarchy, kin, egalitarian cooperation, family honor, mutual respect, and self-sufficiency—are still at the heart of Haitian life.
Dubois, Laurent. Haiti: The Aftershocks of History. New York: Metropolitan, 2012.Google Books. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. http://books.google.com/books?id=drU3HlesN5kC&printsec=frontcover&dq=haiti+the+aftershocks+of+history&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZU6fT4nvHpOm8gSi4sSPAQ&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=haiti%20the%20aftershocks%20of%20history&f=false
Stevens, A. M. (1998). Haitian womens food networks in haiti and oldtown, united states of america. Brown University).ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 364 p. http://search.proquest.com/docview/304419710?accountid=10598