Cultures Explained | 文化解密

走进斋月:Ramadan in Morocco

INTERVIEW

Family gatherings, cheesy TV shows, horseback rides for kids, and no food or water all day: sophomore Hiba Laabadli helps us experience what Ramadan in Morocco is like.

想象一下所有家人聚集在一起看电视节目,孩子们在夜间骑马,整天不吃任何食物,甚至不喝水的场景:让我们跟随Hiba Laabadli一起体验摩洛哥的斋月。

Aiya

Aiya: For those who don’t know what Ramadan is, can you please give us a bit of background information?

你可以给那些不知道斋月是什么的人提供一些背景知识吗?

Hiba: Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which is a lunar calendar so it doesn’t always occur on the same days. During this month, we fast, so no eating, no drinking, no smoking from dawn till dusk. We also can’t have sexual relations or swear while fasting and have to stop drinking forty days before Ramadan.

斋月在伊斯兰历的第九个月。但因为它是农历,所以它不一定每年都是同一天开始。我们在斋月会斋戒禁食,而斋戒禁食的意思就是从日出到日落这期间,我们都不吃东西,不喝东西,也不会抽烟。我们也不能在斋戒禁食的时候发誓,或者进行任何跟性相关的行为,而且我们从斋月开始的四十天前就不能喝酒了。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Could you explain how the month of Ramadan is structured? 

你可以讲一下斋月是什么样的吗?

Hiba: Ramadan lasts 29 to 30 days, the span of time of a full moon cycle. At the end of the month, we celebrate Eid. We get together with family and have a collective breakfast, which feels weird after months of not eating in the morning. In Morocco, we have a big bowl of rice with milk and sugar, pastries, and tea. The kids and unmarried people get money from married and/or old people.

斋月一般是29天或者30天,也就是月相的一个周期。月底的时候,我们会庆祝开斋节。我们会和家人聚在一起,一起吃一顿早餐。人们可能会觉得这件事比较怪,因为大家都一两个月没在一起吃早饭了。在摩洛哥的开斋节,我们会把一大碗米饭和牛奶、糖、点心,还有茶拌在一起吃。而已经结婚的人和老人则会给小孩子和未婚的人钱。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Is that a Moroccan thing?

在开斋节给小孩子和没结婚的人钱是摩洛哥的一种习俗吗?

Hiba: No, I think it’s done in all Muslim countries. On Eid, I get money from my seven uncles and my grandparents from my dad’s side of the family. When I get back to Rabat, where my mom’s side of the family lives, my other uncles give me money too. It’s quite a lot of money. If I ever get married, I would not get that money. So I’m not planning on getting married. (Laughs.)     

不是的,我觉得长辈在开斋节给小辈发钱是所有穆斯林国家都会有的习俗。在开斋节那天,我的七个叔叔和我奶奶都会给我钱。我回到拉巴特的时候,也就是我妈妈娘家,我的舅舅们也会给我钱。真的是很大一笔钱哦。但如果我结婚了,我就永远拿不到这个钱了——所以我不打算结婚。(大笑)

Hiba

https://www.ciee.org

Austin

Austin Woerner: It sounds like the red envelopes for Chinese New Year.

听起来很像中国春节的红包。

Siyue

Siyue He: During the Spring Festival, we’ll get lucky money from our parents or grandparents.

在春节期间,我们会从父母和祖父母那儿拿到压岁钱。

Hiba: Basically, yeah, exactly the same here.

 基本上是,在这里也是一样的。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Would you mind explaining to us what a day of Ramadan feels like? Can you walk us through a day of Ramadan?

你介意解释一下斋月中的一天是个什么感觉吗?你可以带我们走进斋月中的一天吗?

Hiba: The first days are always the hardest, especially since I always get a strong headache. I wake up around 12 PM, I pray first thing if I remember, and then I spend my day doing either schoolwork, going out and shopping, or visiting my grandma. We break our fast around 8 PM and then I stay up until 4 AM to eat again and then sleep.

刚开始的几天总是最艰难的——主要是因为我总是会有很强烈的头疼的感觉。在斋月的话,我一般中午12点起床。我记得我起床后会做的第一件事就是祈祷,然后我在这一整天要么就是在做学校的功课,要么就是出去买东西,要么就是去看我的姥姥 。我们在晚上8点的时候吃一天中的第一顿饭,然后我会待到4点再去吃一顿。吃完这顿才去睡觉。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Who usually fasts? For example, I know that people traveling and women who menstruate or breastfeed don’t fast.

一般是哪些人会禁食呢?我知道那些在旅游的人和那些处于月经期或者哺乳期的人不会禁食,不过还有哪些人会禁食呢?

Hiba: We do not fast during super long, tiring travel. The rule was more useful back when people didn’t have cars. For people with medical conditions (pregnancy, breastfeeding, diabetes, etc.), it depends on what their doctor says. Either way, if we do not fast during Ramadan for one of these reasons, we have to make it up by fasting the same number of days after Ramadan.

我们通常不会在很长很累的旅行中禁食。这个规矩在人们以前没有车的时候更管用。对于那些有(不适)身体状况的人们来说,比如怀孕、哺乳期、患有糖尿病等等的人,禁不禁食取决于他们的医生怎么说。但是不管怎样,如果我们在斋月期间因为以上一些原因没有禁食的话,我们需要在斋月之后禁食相同的天数作为弥补。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: What is your favorite thing about Ramadan?

那你最喜欢斋月的什么呢?

Hiba: I feel healthy during Ramadan. Also, I feel like the family gets closer. After breaking fast, all families sit together, watch TV, and play cards. We eat together in the time between sunset and sunrise.

我在斋月期间感觉很健康。并且我感觉家庭成员之间的关系变得更加紧密了。在结束禁食之后,所有的家庭成员会坐在一起,看看电视,打打牌。然后,在日落之后日出之前,我们一大家子人会在一起吃饭。

Hiba

The meal Hiba and her family have together after breaking fast

Aiya

Aiya: That sounds lovely. Does this mean that you always have to break your fast with your family?

听起来好棒!那意思是你要和你的家人一起结束每天的禁食咯?

Hiba: You can break your fast however you want, either with your family, friends, or alone. We don’t have rules regarding that.

你可以以你喜欢的任何一种方式结束禁食——和你的家人一起,或者和你的朋友一起,甚至是独自一人结束。我们没有这方面的规矩。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Do you usually pray together before food?

你们会在食物前一起祈祷吗?

Hiba: There are the usual five main prayers per day in Islam. Those are every day, Ramadan or not. The fourth prayer is at sunset. Before that prayer, we break our fast with three dates, like how the Prophet broke his fast, and a glass of milk. Then after the prayer, we eat.

在伊斯兰教教义中,每个人每天有五个最主要的祷告要做。那些是每天都要做的,不管是不是斋月。其中第四个祷告就是在日落的时候。在做那个祷告之前,我们会像伊斯兰教的先知一样,吃三颗枣子,喝一杯牛奶,结束禁食。然后在祈祷过后,我们就会吃饭。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Here in Kazakhstan, people usually don’t pray but during Ramadan, they will try to be a little more religious. Supposedly, during Ramadan, if you’re trying to be better, your sins will be forgiven so people will try their best to fast.

那在哈萨克斯坦,人们通常不会在日常生活中做祷告,但是在斋月期间,他们会试着变得更加虔诚。在斋月期间,如果人们尝试成为更好的人,那么他们的罪会被原谅,所以从这方面来讲,人们会尽力做到禁食。

Hiba: We also make an effort to be more religious. It’s believed that if we pray for something on those days, it will happen. So people will try to pray and be more religious during Ramadan and do less forbidden stuff.

我们也会努力去变得更加虔诚。我们相信如果我们在那几天祈祷一些事情的话,它就会发生。所以人们在斋月期间会祈祷,也会变得更加虔诚,而且会少做一些禁止做的事情。

Hiba

https://www.staradvertiser.com

Austin

Austin: Do people attend school or work during Ramadan?

人们在斋月期间会去上课或者去上班吗?

Hiba: Yes, but the hours are shortened for both. During Ramadan, they follow a 9 AM to 3 PM schedule. I’m not sure if the shortened hours are legally required, but everyone follows this.

会的,但是去的时间都会减少。在斋月期间,人们会按照从早上9点到下午3点的作息时间上班或者上学。我不确定缩短工作时长是不是法律要求的,但是所有人都会按照这个时间来生活作息。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: How many people fast? Are cafes closed during the day?

大概有多少人会禁食呢?咖啡馆会在白天关门吗?

Hiba: Most cafes and restaurants are closed. Well-known fast-food restaurants like McDonald’s stay open. The vast majority of Moroccans fast. A minority of Moroccan Jews don’t fast for obvious reasons. In Morocco, if you eat outside in Ramadan, you have to pay a fine or spend time in jail.

大多数咖啡馆和餐厅都会在白天关门。但是像麦当劳那种有名的快餐餐厅还是会开着。很大一部分的摩洛哥人都会禁食。一小部分摩洛哥犹太人 (显然,他们的宗教信仰不同) 不会禁食。在摩洛哥,如果你在斋月期间在外面吃饭,你会被罚款或者去坐牢。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Is there social pressure to fast even if you aren’t religious?

如果你不信伊斯兰教, 会不会有社会上的压力让你去禁食呢?

Hiba: Definitely. You either have to fast or hide the fact that you are not. People are very strict during Ramadan, even if they aren’t otherwise very religious.

当然会有。你要么就禁食,要么就别让别人发现你没有在禁食。人们在斋月期间是会非常严格地遵守教规的,即使他们平日里不是那种很虔诚的信徒。

Hiba

https://www.apieceoftravel.com

Aiya

Aiya: To your knowledge, is there anything related to Ramadan that you think is specifically Moroccan?

那就你所知,有什么东西是只有在摩洛哥斋月里才有的呢?

Hiba: Two traditions come to mind. The last ten days of Ramadan are considered to be especially important. According to the Quran, if you do something good during one of those days, you gain 1000 months’ rewards. But people don’t know which day it is, so they’re very careful during the last ten days. It’s called the Night of Destiny.

我想到两个传统习俗。人们认为斋月的最后十天是非常重要的。根据《可兰经》的教义,如果你在这其中的一天里面做了好事,你就会得到1000个月的回报。但是人们不知道是哪一天,所以他们在这最后的十天里面会很注意言行。这天就被称为“命运的夜晚”。

In Morocco, though, we believe that it is the 27th of Ramadan. Children, who do not normally have to fast, will fast on that day. After breaking fast, their families will celebrate them and make them everything they want. They’ll go out — for girls, they’ll take them to a stylist — they’ll go out and dress them in traditional clothing, take pictures, and ride horses on the beach or in the city. If you go out on that night you’ll see lots of little kids riding horses, taking pictures, wearing traditional clothing and makeup… It’s a special night for kids.

但是在摩洛哥的话,我们觉得那一天就是斋月的第27天。那些通常不需要禁食的孩子们,也会在那天禁食。在结束禁食之后,他们的家人会跟他们一起庆祝,而且会给他们做所有他们想吃的东西。他们会出去玩——家长会带女孩儿们去见设计师——然后给她们穿上传统的服装,会带她们会出去,给她们照相。她们可以在沙滩上或者城市里面骑马。如果你在那天晚上出去,你会看到很多穿着传统服装,画着民族风妆容的小孩子在骑马,照相……对孩子们来说,那是一个非常特殊的夜晚。

Hiba

https://www.moroccoworldnews.com

Aiya

Aiya: What was the other specifically Moroccan tradition that came to mind?

你想到的另一个摩洛哥特有的传统是什么呢?

Hiba: Another tradition, Sha’bana, occurs before Ramadan. To welcome Ramadan, one woman invites female family members and neighbors over for a party. All guests contribute, giving money to the host. From the afternoon until late into the night, we sing, dance, and gossip.

另外一个是叫Sha’bana的传统节日,它在斋月之前。为了迎接斋月,女人们会请家里其他的女人和女邻居一起开派对。所有的客人都会为派对做点事,也会给主人钱。从下午一直到半夜,她们会唱歌,跳舞,还会聊聊八卦。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: That sounds so cool. According to some of my friends, their families will be more lenient during Ramadan. Is there anything like that in Morocco?

听起来很酷诶。听我的很多朋友说,他们的家人在斋月期间会变得更好说话。在摩洛哥有什么类似的情况吗?

Hiba: Here, girls start fasting after their first period and boys, when they hit puberty. For my first two Ramadans, my mom would do anything I asked.

在我们这边,女孩们会在她们第一次例假结束之后开始禁食,男孩子会在他们进入青春期之后开始禁食。在我过的前两个斋月里,我妈妈会竭力满足我的一切需求。

Hiba

Austin

Austin: Is there any aspect of Ramadan where if it didn’t happen, you would feel like you didn’t really have a holiday?

对你来说,有没有哪个特征,或者哪个方面是斋月必不可少的呢?如果失去了那一部分,你就像没有过斋月一样 ?

Hiba: Well, I’ve only ever spent Ramadan in the summer. The month changes every year because of the lunar calendar, so at some point, we’ll start fasting in the winter. But for me summer has always been part of the atmosphere, going to the beach, swimming . . .

嗯…我以前只在夏天过过斋月。因为我们用伊斯兰历的关系,每年的斋月所在的月份都在变化,所以在某些时候,我们会在冬天才开始禁食。但对我来说,夏天一直是我心中很有斋月氛围的一部分——可以去沙滩,去游泳…

Hiba

https://english.alarabiya.net

Hiba: Also, most TV shows start premiering during the first day of Ramadan and last 30 days. They’re really bad shows but that’s not the point. It feels like the whole country is watching them at the same time. We can discuss those shows with everyone. That’s one big part of Ramadan for me.

而且大多数电视节目从斋月的第一天开始播出,他们会持续播放30天。它们真的不算好节目,但这并不重要。重要的是整个国家的人都在同时观看这些节目,而我们可以和所有人讨论这些节目。所以对我来说,这些节目是斋月的一个重要组成部分。

Hiba

Austin

Austin: I see. If you weren’t watching those TV shows, you would feel like you’re missing out?

哦,这样啊!那如果你不看这些电视节目,你会觉得自己少了什么吗?

Hiba: Exactly. It doesn’t feel like Ramadan for me if I’m not watching them.

确实会。如果我不看这些节目,就好像没有过斋月一样。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Does night life change during Ramadan?

斋月期间,人们的夜生活会有变化吗?

Hiba: Cafes and restaurants do not close at night. We have the Old Medina, which is the old city, where most traditional shops are located. Most people spend the night there walking and shopping.

晚上咖啡厅和餐厅不关门。我们这儿有个叫欧德麦地那的老城,那里有很多传统的商铺,也有很多人晚上在那里散步和购物。

Hiba

https://joven.iberia.com

Austin

Austin: Is there anything particular to Ramadan that you eat?

你们在斋月会吃什么特别的东西吗?

Hiba: In my family we don’t normally drink juice, but during Ramadan we drink a ton of it. There are also traditional meals such as slou (a mix of dry fruits). We pulverize dried fruits into a powder which we eat with a spoon. Also, there are soups specific to Ramadan, as well as some western (e.g., French) foods, such as croissants and crepes.

 一般情况下,我们家不喝果汁,但是在斋月期间我们会喝很多。也会吃一些传统食物,比如slou (混合干果)。我们把干果磨成粉末后用勺子吃。除此之外也有一些斋月才会做的汤,以及一些西方(比如法国)食物,如羊角面包和可丽饼。

There are also some pastries specific to Ramadan in Morocco, like chebakia, a very sweet pastry that we eat with harira, a tomato soup, to balance out the sweetness. Women will often get together to make these pastries at home before Ramadan.

在摩洛哥也有一些专门为斋月准备的糕点,比如一种很甜的糕点chebakia,我们会把它和harira(一种番茄汤)放在一起吃来中和甜味。斋月前,妇女们经常会聚在家里一起制作这些糕点。

Hiba

https://tasteofmaroc.com

Aiya

Aiya: Are there differences between what different social groups eat during Ramadan?

不同的社会群体在斋月期间吃的东西有区别吗?

Hiba: No, I don’t think so. There’s the usual soup, milk, and dates for everyone in Morocco. Some people do not have enough money to break their fast so they wait outside until they are given some food.

我认为没有区别。在摩洛哥,每个人都会喝常见的汤和牛奶,吃一样的枣子。但也有些人没有足够的钱吃饭,所以他们就在外面等着,一直到别人给他们一些食物(他们才离开)。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: There are really nice things that people do during Ramadan like donate money. In Kazakhstan, you can go to a cafe and give them money and they will lay out food for people for the entire day.

人们在斋月期间会做一些善事,比如捐款。在哈萨克斯坦,你可以去咖啡馆里,给咖啡馆一些钱,他们就会为人们安排那一整天的食物。

Hiba: Definitely, we do that too. Generally, during Ramadan, people donate more money than usual. Many people will also give their zakat, or an annual monetary donation, during Eid. You have to give away a certain percentage of your earnings that year. In general, it’s around 2.5%. In the old days it used to be whatever you specialized in. For example, a farmer would give his crops. Now, we give money.

当然,在我们那儿也会这么做。一般来说,在斋月期间,人们捐的钱比平时更多,人们会更加乐善好施。许多人也会在开斋节期间献上他们的zakat (天课) ,或者可以说是年度捐赠。人们必须捐出 (奉献)他们那一年收入的一部分。一般来说,大约是收入的2.5%。以前,这些捐献物(奉献)是人们从事的主要工作的部分所得,比如农民会捐出(奉献)他的庄稼。现在的话,我们就会(直接)捐钱。

Hiba

https://bluedoorcuisine.com/10-ramadan-traditions-in-morocco/

Austin

Austin: Why is it that you fast during the day? Why not the night?

那你们为什么在白天禁食呢? 为什么不是晚上?

Hiba: Ramadan isn’t supposed to be easy. We’re able to feel hunger during the day whereas we sleep at night so we won’t feel as if we were fasting. It tests your faith and willpower, to carry on without food during the day. It also makes us empathetic towards people who do not have enough food to eat three times a day.

过斋月不应该是件容易的事。我们能够在白天体会到饥饿感,但我们没有办法在晚上睡觉的时候真切地感受到饥饿感(不像晚上睡着了,就不会感到那么饿)。斋月考验了人们的信念和意志力,(而这种信念和意志力可以)让你坚持在白天不吃东西也能做事。斋月禁食的习俗也让我们能够跟那些一天三餐都吃不饱的人产生共情,与他们感同身受。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Is there any symbolism in Ramadan that you find particularly appealing?

所以你觉得斋月有什么象征性意义特别吸引你吗?

Hiba: The part about testing my willpower and whether or not I’m strong enough to fast. You learn to trust your body more, you know that you can. At first, I couldn’t work out during Ramadan, but then my body adjusted. Even though I was tired and I hadn’t eaten or drunk anything for the whole day, I could still exercise.

斋月考验了我的意志力,也让我知道我是否足够坚强来进行斋戒,而这(是我认为特别吸引我)的部分。你学会更加信任你的身体,你也知道你可以(逐渐做到斋戒禁食)。最开始的时候,我不能在斋月期间进行健身,但后来我的身体就适应(这种生活)了。即使我累了,而且一整天都没有吃或喝任何东西,我仍然可以锻炼。

Hiba

Austin

Austin: What’s interesting for me is that, in American culture at least, holidays are so often about indulgence. This is the first time I’ve heard of a holiday that is also about endurance.

对我来讲,比较有趣的一点是,至少在美国文化中,节日常常会跟放纵联系起来。这还是我第一次听说一个跟忍耐相关的节日。

Hiba: Ramadan tests our faith, our power, our body. The difference here is that it’s not a holiday in the sense that people still work and carry on like normal. It is, however, a special time of the year where we do not indulge ourselves.

斋月考验着我们的信仰,我们的力量,还有我们的身体素质。斋月和其他节日的不同之处在于,这不是一个假期,因为人们仍然照常工作和生活。然而,这是一年中一段非常特殊的时期,这是一段我们不能放纵自己的时期。

Hiba

Hiba tattooed her feet with Henna, which is one of the things kids do to celebrate

Austin

Austin: What are some of your earliest memories of Ramadan, either from when you were little or from when you first started fasting?

你对斋月最早的记忆是什么样的?你可以聊聊你很小时候对斋月就有的记忆吗?也可以讲讲你第一次开始斋戒禁食的记忆。

Hiba: Before I started fasting, my mom would ask me to taste the food she was cooking, because she couldn’t eat it herself. She would ask me, Is it good? Is it salty enough? I always told her it wasn’t salty enough. She would add salt and the food would taste super bad because it was oversalted.

在我(第一次)开始斋戒禁食之前,我妈妈会要求我品尝她做的食物,因为她自己不能吃。她会问我:“这个好吃吗?这个够咸吗?”我总是跟她说,“这个不够咸”,然后她就会加好多盐,而那道菜也变得很难吃,因为真的太咸了。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Can you tell us more about Eid?

你可以和我们再多讲些有关开斋节的事情吗?

Hiba: The three days of Eid are holidays for everyone. On the first day, we wake up at 7AM to go to the mosque and pray the special Eid prayer. I spend the day with my dad’s side of the family. We eat breakfast together and then ask our uncles for money and spend the afternoon playing games. The other two days mirror the first day, minus the prayer.

开斋节的这三天所有人都会放假。第一天,我们早上7点就会起床去清真寺进行特殊的开斋节祷告。我一整天都会和我爸爸这边的亲戚待在一起。我们一起吃早餐,然后我管我的叔叔伯伯们要“红包”,我们还会用整个下午来玩游戏。余下两天,除了没有做祷告的环节,其他和第一天都是一样的。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: I heard that some people pray for the whole night after Ramadan starts.

我听说在斋月有些人会祷告一整晚。

Hiba: It’s actually every night of Ramadan. People go out and pray all night, or rather an extended period of time during the night. They pray in the mosque together. It’s called taraweeh, which is one prayer repeated for a long time. It lasts about three hours.

事实上斋月的每个晚上都这样。人们会整晚整晚地外出并祈祷,但更确切地说是在晚上一段较长的时间里(人们会外出做祷告)。他们会一起去清真寺祈祷。这种祈祷者长时间重复的祈祷被称作 taraweeh,大约会持续三个小时。

Hiba

https://images.app.

Aiya

Aiya: Were there large-scale gatherings in the mosques during the pandemic, especially last year? Was Ramadan influenced or disrupted by the pandemic?

在疫情流行期间,特别是去年,还有大规模的清真寺集会吗? 斋月有没有被疫情影响到,甚至中断了呢?

Hiba: The gathering was canceled. People prayed in their homes instead. The night prayers were also canceled so we have not had them for two years now. The pandemic heavily affected Ramadan, especially because of the 11 pm curfew imposed this year, as we couldn’t go outside at night.

清真寺聚会被取消了。人们只能在家里祈祷。夜间祈祷也被取消了,所以我们已经两年没有进行这类祷告了。疫情严重地影响了斋月特别是今年,因为晚上11点就宵禁了,所以我们晚上就不能外出了。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Does it still feel like Ramadan?

这样感觉还像斋月吗?

Hiba: Yes, but less Ramadan than before. I felt like we were missing out on a lot, especially my little brother and sister. They did not have the Night of Destiny I mentioned earlier. But they’re gonna have it next year, hopefully.

斋月还是斋月,但是不那么像以前的斋月了。我觉得我们错过了很多东西,尤其是我的弟弟和妹妹。他们没办法像我一样体验我之前提到的“命运的夜晚”。但我希望他们明年可以。

Hiba

Aiya

Aiya: Do you plan to celebrate Ramadan on campus?

那你计划在校园里庆祝斋月吗?

Hiba: I definitely will but it’s going to be weird because such a big part of Ramadan for me is spending time with my family. Maybe I can find friends to fast or try out fasting with me!

当然是会的,但这可能会有点奇怪,因为对我来说,斋月很重要的一部分就是和家人在一起。但或许我可以找到会斋戒禁食或者愿意和我一起尝试斋戒禁食的朋友!

Hiba

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Hiba Laabadli is a sophomore student in DKU, planning to major in either Data Science or Applied Mathematics. She was born and raised in Rabat, the Capital of Morocco.

Hiba Laabadli (林海)是DKU的大二学生,计划选择数据科学或应用数学专业。她在摩洛哥的首都拉巴特出生并长大。

Aiya Kuchukova (Anika Kuchukova) is a senior student at Duke Kunshan University, majoring in Applied Mathematics. She is also an editor for Intersections and she likes to sing, play the ukulele, and interview people about their cultures.

Aiya Kuchukova (孔楚安)是DKU的一名大四学生,她的专业是应用数学。她也是《交集》的编辑之一,她喜欢唱歌,弹尤克里里,也喜欢采访人们跟他们文化相关的事。

Austin

Austin Woerner teaches English and creative writing at DKU. 

Austin Woerner (温侯廷)是DKU英语和创意写作课程的教授。

Austin

Siyue He is a junior at DKU majoring in Environmental Science with tracks in Public Policy.

Siyue He (何思樾) 是DKU的一名大三学生,她的专业是环境科学公共政策。

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英文编辑 English Editors | 

Giulia de Cristofaro   Susan Lin

中文翻译和编辑 Translators and Chinese editor | 

Jiaqi Zhang 张家祺 Lexue Song 宋乐雪 Siyue He 何思樾

排版 Layout | Ruohan Wang 王若菡 Lexue Song 宋乐雪