Interview/Cultures Explained | 文化解密

Weddings in Pakistan: Process and Religion

INTERVIEW

Three wedding dresses, a week of festivities, and a thousand guests: If you’ve never been to a Pakistani wedding, you’re missing out! DKU senior Zarfishar Tayyab walks us through all the details of this colorful tradition.

三件婚纱,一周的庆祝活动,上千名宾客:如果你从未参加过巴基斯坦的婚礼,你一定会错过如此大的场面! 让Zarfishar Tayyab带我们领略这个丰富多彩的传统中的所有细节。

Part 1 巴基斯坦的婚礼是什么样的?

How are Pakistani weddings like?

Aiya

Aiya: Why did you decide to tell us about Pakistani weddings?

你为什么打算给我们介绍巴基斯坦的婚礼呢?

Zarfishar: It’s a huge part of Pakistan. If you look at our economy for the past five years, even if people are having a bad time the wedding industry is consistently growing. It’s the largest industry in our entire country. There are so many layers to it, there’s so much diversity in the functions. But one thing that’s common in all of them is that they’re very festive. It’s at the point where, because a lot of people get married in winter, it’s often called “wedding season.”

婚礼是巴基斯坦很重要的一部分。如果你看我们这五年的经济走势,虽然人们的日子并不好过,但是婚庆行业却一直在稳健地发展。婚庆产业是我们国家最大的产业。这个产业囊括了许多复杂的层面,也承担了多种不同的职能。但是婚庆产业有一个普遍的特点:它们非常有节日性。因为很多新人选择在冬天成婚,所以冬天甚至被称为“结婚季”。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: You said there are many layers to it, can you explain how the whole process goes, beginning with searching for a spouse?

你说整个婚礼过程很繁复,那你可以从相亲开始,从头解释一下整个流程是怎么样的吗?

Zarfishar: People will either find a partner themselves or have it arranged. The arranged marriage process is predominant. Once they’re ready for marriage, kids will be asked what qualities they’re looking for and parents will start looking, or hire a matchmaker.

人们要么自己找对象,要么找人帮忙安排。人们对这种“包办”婚姻的过程司空见惯。一旦孩子们为结婚做好了准备,家长就会问他们希望找什么样的对象。然后家长会亲自帮孩子留意寻找,或者请一个媒人帮衬。

Zarfishar

credit: https://www.desiblitz.com/content/the-concept-of-arranged-marriages-in-pakistan

Aiya

Aiya: I see, are there specific qualities the bachelors and bachelorettes will look for?

原来如此。那这些单身的年轻人一般想要什么样的对象呢?

Zarfishar: Most of the time they look for someone who’s well educated and financially stable. But sometimes people will have really weird requirements that are classist, even racist.

In lower middle-class families, they’re not as open to girls taking up non-traditional gender roles in marriage. This isn’t as prevalent in upper class families because it’s normal to hire domestic help. People can also make rude requirements like the girl has to be tall, or very light-skinned. Pakistan has a lot of diversity in skin color. But let’s say the girl is too tan, the parents could say no. It’s toxic.

一般情况下,他们都想找个接受过良好教育,自身经济条件稳定的人。但是有时候人们会有特别离谱的要求,有的有阶级歧视,甚至种族歧视。对于中低阶级家庭,他们不太接受那些在婚姻中不循规蹈矩的“新时代”女性(也就是那些不扮演传统家庭角色的女性,比如相夫教子的家庭主妇)。但是这种现象在上层阶级家庭却不常见,因为他们可以请家政料理起居。人们有时候也会提出一些无理的要求,比如女方必须个子高挑或者皮肤白皙。巴基斯坦人有很多种肤色。比方说一个女生皮肤比较黑,另一方的家长有可能会拒绝她。这就挺伤人的。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: And would you say there are fewer arranged marriages among the upper-class than lower class?

你觉得在上层阶级中“包办”婚姻会比中下层阶级少吗?

Zarfishar: I feel like the internet has really changed things, since now people can meet online. Among all classes it’s become more socially acceptable for you to find your own partner. Now it’s more about whether you have a conservative or progressive mindset. And that distinction is separate from social class. People refrain from dating apps though. I believe Tinder is banned because it’s associated with sex, which is a huge taboo.

我感觉互联网改变了许多事情因为在人们可以通过网络相知相识。无论什么阶级,自己寻找心仪的另一半已经越来越被接受。现在更重要的是你的心态是保守的还是进步的。而心态的差异区别于社会阶级。话虽说如此,人们还是尽可能避免使用约会软件。我了解到Tinder(手机社交软件)因为涉及到(约会)性行为已经被禁用了——性爱在巴基斯坦一直都是一种禁忌。

Zarfishar

credit: https://www.desiblitz.com/content/the-concept-of-arranged-marriages-in-pakistan

Zarfishar: Once a match is made, they’ll fix a date for the wedding, and that’s a small event, attended by immediate family members, or respectable extended family members. Then you fix the date for the engagement. People will rent a banquet hall, buy new outfits, it’ll be a huge ceremony. They exchange rings and the engagement becomes official.

人们看对眼之后,就会定下婚礼的日期。近亲和有声望的远亲会受邀参加一个小型活动。在这之后,人们会举办订婚仪式确定正式结婚的时间。人们会为了订婚仪式租宴会厅,买新衣服……那将会是一场盛大的仪式。准新人们在仪式上交换戒指,这样就算是正式订婚了。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: How long do wedding preparations take?

婚礼一般需要多长时间准备?

Zarfishar: A year is pretty standard. It takes time because on the boy’s side they’re planning for the girl to move in, and on the girl’s side there’s wedding shopping and preparation. A huge part of the preparations is taken up by gift-giving. The groom’s family will have to buy gifts for the bride’s family, her close friends, her teachers —

准备个一年是比较常见的。对男方来说,他们要准备好让新娘搬过来一起住;对女方来说,他们需要为婚礼进行采购和布置。送礼占了婚前准备的很大一部分。新郎的家庭需要买礼物送给新娘的家人、她的好朋友、她的老师——

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: You said teachers? 

等等,还有老师?

Zarfishar: Yeah! The Quran is our holy book, so the person who taught the bride the Quran must receive a gift. And the bride’s family will do the same for the groom’s friends and family.

当然!《古兰经》是我们的圣书,所以教授新娘《古兰经》的人当然要得到一份礼物啦。同样,新娘的家人也要给新郎的家人朋友们准备礼物。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: Wow, I’m already feeling how expensive the year leading up to the marriage will be. And would the ceremony be expensive?

天呐,我已经感受到婚前准备的这一年开销有多大了。那婚礼上花的钱多吗?

credit: https://www.nayasafar.pk/blog/how-to-make-pakistani-wedding-less-costly/

Zarfishar: It’d be very expensive. In the three-day traditional ceremony, the first day is Mehndi, and the second day is when the groom’s family comes to the bride’s family to pick her up when the actual wedding itself happens. The wedding would be huge, they average around 500, and really large weddings have 1000+ people. You have to cater food, buy decor, hire a photographer. A day can easily cost around 1.5 million rupees.

非常多。传统婚礼一般需要三天,第一天的仪式称为“曼海蒂”(Mehndi),等到第二天新郎的家人们到新娘家来接她,真正的婚礼才开始。参加婚礼的人会非常多,平均有五百人,大的婚礼甚至有上千人。你需要宴请宾客,买装饰品,请摄影师。一天开销很容易就能到一百五十万卢比(约合人民币六万元)。

Zarfishar

Part 2 人们会在婚礼上做些什么?

What do people do for a wedding?

 婚礼进行时/ While the wedding is going on

Zarfishar: But many things happen before the actual wedding. Usually a week before the wedding you’re gonna have small get-togethers in your house where we have this traditional instrument, called a dholki. What happens is all the bridesmaids, the women, gather in the bride’s house or the groom’s house and play this instrument and sing traditional songs about the wedding. People eat and sing and dance the whole night. It starts to get really intense closer to the wedding, where people do this every single night.

但是有很多事情发生在真正的婚礼之前。通常婚礼前一周,新人们会在自己家里举办小型聚会,演奏传统乐器“多尔吉”(dholki,一种大鼓)。所有的伴娘都会聚集在新人家,边弹“多尔吉”边唱一些赞颂婚礼的传统歌曲。人们又吃又唱又跳一整夜。这些聚会每晚都有,而且越靠近婚礼当天,这些聚会就搞得越起劲。

And depending on whether you like dancing or not, the friends and family of the bride and the groom will get together and start practicing dances for the first day of the wedding, the Mehndi. Mehndi is the Urdu word for henna. The bride has it on her hands and sometimes on her feet. A lot of small decorative candles are lit, and the bride and groom will be sitting on the stage and in front of them there’s gonna be sweets. The family members are all gonna come one by one, give the bride and groom some money, pick up a sweet from the table, and feed the bride and groom. When that’s all done the dance performance starts. Sometimes people will turn it into a competition, like the bride’s family vs. the groom’s family, and dance all night long.

根据新人们对舞蹈的喜爱程度,新人的朋友和家人会聚在一起排练“曼海蒂”,也就是婚礼第一天的舞蹈。“曼海蒂”是乌尔都语“海娜手绘”的意思。新娘手上画着海娜手绘,有时脚上也有脚绘。我们会点很多小的装饰蜡烛。两位新人会坐在舞台上,面前摆满糖果。家人们会一个个进来,给新人们一些礼金,之后拿起一颗糖果喂给新人。当这个流程结束之后,舞蹈表演就开始了。有时候这种表演甚至会成为一种比赛,比如“新郎家”对阵“新娘家”,人们会因此跳一整夜。

Zarfishar

曼海蒂 “Mahndi” credit: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehndi#/media/File:Mehndi_front.JPG

Zarfishar: The second day is when the wedding contract is signed, and the bride traditionally wears red, but people are moving away from that, wearing pastels and lighter colors too.

婚礼的第二天,新人正式签署婚姻合同。在这一天,按传统来说新娘是要穿红色的,但是随着人们观念的转变,现在新娘也可以穿点清淡柔和的颜色。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: And what is the wedding contract like?

婚姻合同是什么样子的?

Zarfishar: The wedding contract is very detailed. Religiously, the husband is required to give his wife an amount of money, called mehr, that he can never take away from her. Sometimes people get a huge amount written in the contract, like 5 million rupees, about USD 50,000. The religious reason for that is it’s supposed to make the woman feel secure, so even in the horrible case that they divorce, she’s not left stranded. In the contract, they write down the amount and the exact date the groom will give it.

婚姻合同会非常详细。从宗教的意义上来说,丈夫必须给他的妻子一笔叫“梅尔”(mehr)的钱,这笔钱他永远不能拿走。有时候女方从合同中得到一大笔钱,可能有五百万卢比,相当于二十万元人民币。这样做的宗教原因是让女人有安全感,这样即使双方迫不得已离婚了,女人也不会束手无策。合同里要写清楚金额和新郎交款的具体日期。

The bride has to sign it first, so that she can add any clauses she wants. In the contract the bride has the right to divorce, or she can choose to not keep it. There’s also a clause where if the bride wants, the husband can’t marry somebody else without her consent first. Islam allows multiple marriages, but it’s taboo to actually have a second marriage, everyone looks down upon it. Everyone sympathizes with the woman if the husband does have a second marriage. But the bride still has the right to keep the husband from marrying someone else without her legal consent. The clauses the bride can add can be anything from “I will never cook or clean for you,” to “I will go and work wherever I want.” Once the bride has signed the groom will sign.

新娘必须先签字,这样她可以加上任何她想要的条款。根据合同,新娘有权利离婚,但她也可以选择放弃这份权利。还有一项条款是:如果新娘要求,新郎在没有征得她的同意前不能娶别的妻子。伊斯兰允许一夫多妻,但娶第二个妻子实际上是一种禁忌,所有人都看不起这种行为。每个人都会可怜丈夫娶了第二个妻子的女人。万幸的是,新娘仍然有权阻止丈夫在未经她法定同意的情况下娶第二个妻子。新娘还可以添加别的条款,比如“我永远不会为你做饭和打扫卫生”或者“我想去哪里工作就去哪里工作”。只要新娘一签,新郎就得跟着签。

Zarfishar

credit: www.desiblitz.com/content/why-pakistani-bride-rights-matter-in-a-nikkah-contract

Zarfishar: But because a huge part of our population is not literate, there are women who don’t know they have these rights, even though they’re signing with their own hand. Their families are also often illiterate, so nobody knows about these legalities. It’s sad because in a society that’s not literate the boy and the girl don’t know what the paper says and just listen to what their family tells them. It’s a bad social divide. The upper class can educate their children equally. Because they’re educated their marriages are more egalitarian; the girls are more aware of their rights, and the boys know that these are life partners, not servants.

但是有很大一部分巴基斯坦人都是文盲,即使女人们亲手签下合同,她们也不知道自己拥有这么多的权利。她们的家人通常也都是文盲,所以很少人知道这些合法权益。这挺可悲的。在一个不识字的社会中,孩子们读不懂白纸黑字,只能对他们的家庭惟命是从。这种阶级分化真的很糟糕。上层阶级会平等地教育他们的孩子,因而他们的婚姻更平等——女孩子更重视她们的权益,男孩子知道他们的妻子是一生的伴侣而不是仆人。

That evening after the wedding contract is signed, the groom’s family comes to pick up the bride, and there’s a lot of small traditions here. For example, the bride’s sisters and friends are gonna hide the groom’s shoes, and only return the shoes for money. And then the bargaining starts, where the bride’s friends will ask for money and the groom will ask for his shoes back. The groom’s friends are gonna be on the search for the shoes.

婚姻合同签订的当晚,新郎家去接新娘,这里又有很多传统的环节。比如,新娘的姐妹和朋友们要把新郎的鞋藏起来,不给钱就不还。这场讨价还价开始后,新娘的朋友们向新郎要钱,而新郎向他们要鞋。与此同时,新郎的朋友们也会帮着找鞋。

Another event is when the bride’s friends pour milk into a glass and decorate it with mirrors and crystals, before making the groom drink it and ask him for money in exchange.

另一个小风俗是,新娘的朋友们会用镜子和水晶装饰一个玻璃杯,把牛奶倒进去,并且设法让新郎喝掉,然后为此向他要钱。

Money exchange happens all the time during a Pakistani wedding. Every wedding guest is expected to give some amount of money to the couple. It’s similar to how in Chinese culture they give hongbaos. It’s considered super rude if you don’t give money or a gift to the couple that’s getting married.

各种金钱的往来在巴基斯坦婚礼中会时常发生。每个宾客需要给新人一些礼金,这一点很像中国文化中的给红包。如果你没有给新人礼金或者礼物,会显得很不礼貌。

After the wedding ceremony, people will usually put a cloth on the bride’s head, and hold the Quran over her, kind of like an umbrella until she’s sat in the car. When the bride arrives at the groom’s house even more money exchange happens.

婚礼仪式结束后,人们会把一块头巾盖在新娘的头上,并把一本《古兰经》高高举过她的头顶,像撑着一把伞一样把她送到车里。新娘到新郎的家里后,更多的礼金环节就会出现。

Zarfishar

credit: https://lifeinsaudiarabia.net/what-does-islam-say-about-holding-the-quran-over-the-brides-head/

Zarfishar: The youngest brother of the groom sits on the bride’s lap, or holds her knees, and asks for money in exchange for leaving. Before the bride and groom are allowed to enter the house, the girls from the groom’s side are gonna block the way to the entrance until they’re given money. It’s all fun and banter, and people are having a good time.

新郎最小的弟弟会坐在新娘的大腿上,或者会抱住她的膝盖,不给钱就没法打发走。在新人们进入房子之前,新娘那边的女孩们会堵住房门,直到拿到钱她们才会离开。这些都是有趣和善意的玩笑,大家都很开心。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: Okay, so how much will you have to pay for someone to let you go, or get out of your lap?

哦!那新人要给多少钱才能让别人放他们进门,或者从他们的大腿上下来?

Zarfishar: If you’re from a decently rich family 5000 rupees would be enough. But there’s no fixed rule, it’s honestly just people teasing. I feel like it’s a way for the bride to be eased into the house so she feels more comfortable about her first night.

如果你家里比较有钱的话,5000卢比(约合人民币200元)就够了。但是这也没有固定的要求,实际上这只是人们在开玩笑。我感觉这就是让新娘放松下来的一种方式,让她在新家的第一个晚上像在自己家一样。

Zarfishar

 新娘的准备/ The bride’s preparations

Aiya

Aiya: Can you explain how the bride prepares for her wedding?

你能讲讲新娘是怎么准备这场婚礼的吗?

Zarfishar: Pakistani culture is so vibrant and colorful, so the bride has a lot to do to stand out. She’s going to get the biggest dress and add sequins, stones, and crystals. She would also get her makeup, hair, hands, and nails done. A lot of people go for a full-body wax as well.

巴基斯坦的服装文化本就多姿多彩、富有活力,人们还要尤其在婚纱上加入亮片、宝石和水晶的元素。新娘需要做很多事让自己(在婚礼上)脱颖而出。她需要最明丽的裙子,需要化好妆、做好头发、画好手绘、做好指甲。很多人还会去做全身脱毛。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: So you’re into high fashion right? Can you tell me more about any significant parts of the bride’s dress or any particular colors the wedding will be themed to?

这么说你们也挺潮的嘛?你能说说新娘的婚纱有哪些部分比较特别吗?有哪些颜色是婚礼必须要有的吗?

Zarfishar: The bride is going to try and make sure everything is themed to the wedding and that her dress stands out. There’s different types of dresses. One is a lehenga, which is a blouse and a long, huge skirt completely covered in sequins and stones. Another is a longer shirt that comes to your mid-thigh with pants that are so wide you could fit four people in one leg. But with all these different styles, the bride’s dress has to be the heaviest, her jewelry the heaviest. Usually her head is covered with a cloth that goes with the dress. On the first day, for the Mehndi it’s usually yellow and greens and oranges; on the second day, usually, it will be shades of red or at least a veil that’s red. On the third day, she will be wearing lighter tones that are more pastel, ivory, or cream.

新娘需要保证所有东西和整个婚礼风格保持统一,同时她的着装也要引人注目。有很多不同款式的婚纱。一种是“莱亨加”(lehenga),一件衬衫和一条超大的长裙,上面镶满亮片和宝石。还有一种是一件过膝的上衣和一条裤子,裤筒宽得足以容纳四个人。在所有不同的风格中,有一点是不变的:新娘的裙子必须最重,她的首饰也必须最重。通常,新娘的头上包裹着和裙子相称的头巾。在第一天的曼海蒂仪式上新娘的服饰通常是黄色、绿色和橙色的,第二天的服饰色调通常是红色或者接近红色的,或者至少要有一块美丽的红色面纱。在第三天新娘通常会穿更柔和活泼的浅色调,比如象牙色或者奶油色。

Zarfishar

莱亨加 “Lehenga” credit: www.pakstyle.pk/blog/best-lehenga-dresses-design-for-wedding-b165.html

Zarfishar: But nowadays the color of the dress doesn’t matter as much. A dress wouldn’t be white though, because culturally that’s the color of mourning. Besides, nobody wears black, that’s very taboo. But every other color is basically acceptable.

但其实现在裙子的颜色真的不是很重要。可是婚纱不能是白色的,因为在传统意义上白色代表着丧事。也没有人会穿黑色,那也是一大禁忌。其他颜色基本上都可以接受。

There’s this thing called the Mayun, it’s not something everyone does, but four days before the three-day wedding functions, they’re gonna put this yellow stuff all over the bride to beautify her. And she’ll wear a yellow-colored dress sent to her by the groom’s family.

还有一个环节叫“麻允”(Mayun)。这不是人人都做的事。在婚礼开始的四天前,人们会在新娘身上涂上一些黄色的粉末来给她美容,而且新娘会穿一件新郎家送来的黄裙子。

Zarfishar

麻允 “Mayun” credit: Pakistani Indian Bride Tumeric Haldi Paste Stock Photo

Zarfishar: So there’s three wedding dresses the bride will wear. One will be bought by the bride’s family. The other two have to be sponsored by the groom’s side. It’s a whole thing, the groom’s mother and sisters will take the bride to go wedding dress shopping, shoe shopping, makeup shopping.

所以新娘一共会穿三件婚纱。一件是新娘家买的,另外两件必须要新郎一方掏钱。这是全家的大事,新娘的妈妈和姐妹会带新娘去买婚纱、鞋子和化妆品。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: That’s cool.

那挺好的。

 新婚之夜/ The first night

Aiya

Aiya: So I have a question, if talking about sex is taboo how do couples know what to do on the first night?

我还有一个问题,如果性爱是个禁忌话题,新人们怎么知道新婚之夜做什么呢?

Zarfishar: I think somebody tells them what to do, usually friends or cousins that are a couple of years older and already married. But things are changing now because of the internet. It would be stupid to think one is not going to look up what these things are.

我估计有人会告诉他们,比如朋友或者结了婚的表亲。但是互联网已经让事情改变了很多,要是认为一个人不会上网去查可就有点蠢了。

When the guests leave, all the ceremonies are done, the bride is expected to wait for the groom inside the bedroom. And he has to sweet talk to her, get to know her, comfort her. There is this thing which translates to “the revealing of the face,” in English, and he has to give her a gift. Like a necklace or bracelet, something pretty and nice, something that is hers and he can’t take back. But there’s no religious requirement that they have to have sex on the wedding night, it’s completely up to them. But you’re right, sex is a taboo topic, you just can’t bring it up.

当客人离开,仪式结束之后,新娘应该在卧室里等她的新郎。新郎必须对她甜言蜜语,了解她,安抚她。接下来的事被称为“露脸”,这时他必须送给她一件礼物,比如项链或手镯,一件漂亮的玩意。这份礼物将完全属于她,新郎不能要回。但是在二人要不要在新婚之夜有性生活这件事上,我们这儿没有宗教规定。这完全取决于他们。但是你说的没错,性爱是个忌讳的话题,你没办法提出来的。

Zarfishar

credit: https://www.desiblitz.com/content/first-night-stories-arranged-marriage

Zarfishar: Because religion is a huge part of it, it’s mandatory for the man to set the mood and make the woman comfortable with kissing and foreplay. You can’t get straight into sex, that’s literally forbidden. You have to make sweet talk and comfort the woman every single time you approach her. Islam has different things that become jurisdiction, the Quran and the prophet’s teachings (hadith). It’s forbidden to approach your wife aggressively, it’s compared to something that animals do. And also the man has to care for the woman’s pleasure, you have to make sure your partner is having a good time. So religiously all these things are discussed, but culturally they’re never brought up.

因为宗教是婚姻的重要组成部分,所以男人必须用亲吻和前戏让女人进入情绪,感到舒服。你不能直接进入到性爱,那是被严格禁止的。你必须在每次接近她的时候用甜蜜的话语让她放松下来。伊斯兰教中有些东西被上升为圣律,包括《古兰经》和先知的教诲(也就是《圣训》,hadith)。横冲直闯地接近你的妻子是被严格禁止的,这被比作动物般野蛮的行为。另外,男人必须照顾到女人的体验感。他要确保他的伴侣也享受这个过程。因此在宗教上这些东西都有讨论,但是在我们的文化中却从来不被提起。

Zarfishar

Aiya

Aiya: I see, I didn’t know that those details are included in the hadith! It’s nice to let people know that they should do these things, to care about women’s pleasure too.

原来如此。我之前从不知道圣训中还包含了这么多细节!提醒人们关注女性的性体验真的挺好的。

That makes me wonder, how much of the Pakistani wedding process is influenced by Islam and how much is specific to Pakistan?

这让我不禁好奇,在整个巴基斯坦婚礼的流程中,有多少是受伊斯兰教影响的,又有多少是巴基斯坦特有的?

credit: unitedwithlove.com/2018/12/11/muslim-pakistani-wedding/

Zarfishar: If you marry someone based on the laws of Islam, it’s a very short process, not at all extravagant. You go to a mosque and just sign the documentation, have witnesses from each side, and that’s it. Then the groom has to give food to people. Everything else is 100% Pakistani. A lot of things, like the Mehndi, are influenced by Indian culture because we were basically one country up until 74 years ago. Someone who’s not from Pakistan or India, if they look at a picture of an Indian wedding and a Pakistani wedding, probably can’t tell the difference. There’s some difference with clothing, because people don’t show a lot of skin in Pakistan and in India they show a little more. Indian weddings also have Hindu ceremonies, but other than that, they’re culturally very similar.

如果你按伊斯兰教的规定结婚,流程会非常简洁,一点也不奢侈。你只需要去清真寺签署文件,双方各有证人在场,就结束了。在这之后新郎必须要给人们食物。除此之外,其余的流程都是百分之百巴基斯坦特色。很多东西,比如“曼海蒂”,都是受印度文化影响,因为我们直到74年前(巴基斯坦脱离印度独立)基本上都是一个国家。如果给一个不是来自巴基斯坦或者印度的人看两国的婚礼照片,他大概率会分辨不出区别。(但两国在婚礼)服饰上倒是有一些差异:巴基斯坦人不会露出太多皮肤,印度人露的会更多。印度婚礼还包括一些印度教仪式。但除此之外,它们都非常相似。

Zarfishar

Screen Shot 2022-08-20 at 13.58.47

Zarfishar Tayyab is a senior student majoring in  Institutions and Governance. Her interests include business, entrepreneurship, cross-cultural communication, fashion, cooking super-specific meals, and drinking an insane amount of coffee and bubble tea. She chose to talk about weddings in Pakistan because it sounded fun and was something she thought would be interesting for non South Asians to read about.

Zarfishar Tayyab是一名机构与治理专业的大四学生。她的兴趣包括商业,创业,跨文化交流,时尚,烹饪很特别的食物,喝大量咖啡和奶茶。她选择谈论巴基斯坦的婚礼,因为这听起来很有趣,她认为非南亚人读起来会很有趣。

Aiya Kuchukova (Anika Kuchukova) is a senior student at Duke Kunshan University, majoring in Applied Mathematics. She is also an editor for Intersections and she likes to sing, play the ukulele, and interview people about their cultures.

Aiya Kuchukova (孔楚安)是DKU的一名大四学生,她的专业是应用数学。她也是《交集》的编辑之一,她喜欢唱歌,弹尤克里里,也喜欢采访人们跟他们文化相关的事。

Austin

英文编辑 English Editors | Giulia de Cristofaro  Erica Ham  Faith Ho

中文翻译和编辑 Translators and Chinese editors | 

Ruohan Wang 王若菡  Xinyue Wang 王心悦

Steven He 何思暢

排版 Layout | Shuzhe Wang 王姝哲 Lexue Song 宋乐雪