Glossary

Backloaded funds: a funding cycle where a majority of monies is available toward the end of a project period or fiscal year.

Buffer stock: a level of extra stock that is maintained to help avoid stockouts or excessive lead times.

Bullwhip effect: an observed phenomenon in forecast-driven distribution channels where an oscillating demand magnification is observed as one moves upstream in a supply chain.

Community therapeutic care (CTC): a new model for the treatment of severe malnutrition that delivers care in the home, rather than in a hospital-based setting.

Component cost: the monetary cost associated with each activity in the supply chain.

Exceptions handling
: a process for handling and communicating unexpected events in the supply chain.

First Expiry First Out (FEFO)
: when products are utilized in the order of their expiry date (as compared to First In First Out, or FIFO, which prioritizes in order of arrival).

Fiscal year: the period used for calculating annual financial statements and for making annual projections and budgets (also called financial year or budget year).

Formula-75 and Formula-100 (F75 and F100)
: therapeutic milks to treat severe malnutrition, used primarily at in-patient feeding centers.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): financial and non-financial measures used to help an organization define and evaluate how successful it is.

Lead time: the period of time between the initiation of any process and the completion of that process.

Logistics: the management of the flow of goods, information and other resources, including energy and people, between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet the requirements of consumers.

Ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSF)
: portable and shelf-stable products that meet the supplementary nutrient needs of those who are not severely malnourished.

Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)
: portable, shelf-stable, single serving foods that are used in a prescribed manner to treat children with severe acute malnutrition.

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM): “a very low weight for height (below -3 z scores of the median WHO growth standards), by visible severe wasting, or by the presence of nutritional oedema” (WHO, WFP, UNSSCN, UNICEF, 2007).

Supply chain: the system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources that moves a product or service from supplier to customer.

Supply chain analysis
: the study of how a product reaches a consumer, from the time when demand is anticipated until goods are delivered.

Total landed cost: the sum of all monetary costs associated with making and delivering products to the end customer.

Transshipment: the transport of goods to an intermediate location en route to its final destination.

Underweight: an indication for children who exhibit low weight-for-age measurements.

Wasting: an indication for children who exhibit low weight-for-height measurements.

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