Ahearn, M., & Sterns, J. (2013). Direct-to-Consumer Sales of Farm Products: Producers and Supply Chains in the Southeast. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics45(03).

Ahern, M., Brown, C., & Dukas, S. (2011). A National Study of the Association Between Food Environments and County‐Level Health Outcomes. The Journal of Rural Health27(4), 367-379.

Apparicio, P., M.S. Cloutier, and R. Shearmur (2007). The Case of Montréal’s Missing Food Deserts: Evaluation of Accessibility to Food Supermarkets, International Journal of Health Geographics 6(4).

Bailey, J. M. (2010). Rural grocery stores: importance and challenges. Center for Rural Affairs Rural Research and Analysis Program. Published October.

Baker, J. (2012). Double Up Food Bucks: Program benefits farmers and low-income consumers seeking fresh produce. The Ann Arbor News, 3 Mar. 2012. Retrieved from

Beaufort County Developmental Center (BCDC). (2014). Mission.  Retrieved from

Bennett, K. J., Probst, J. C., & Pumkam, C. (2011). Obesity among working age adults: The role of county-level persistent poverty in rural disparities. Health & place17(5), 1174-1181.

Burns, C.M., and Inglis, A.D. 2007. Measuring food access in Melbourne: Access to healthy and fast foods by car, bus and foot in an urban municipality in Melbourne. Health & Place, 13 (2007) 877-885.

Cloak, L., Ledford., D., Tocco, N. 2011. Master’s Thesis, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University.

Census Bureau. 2014. State and County QuickFacts: Various North Carolina Counties. Retrieved from

Note: Data derived from Population Estimates, American Community Survey, Census of Population and Housing, State and County Housing Unit Estimates, County Business Patterns, Non-employer Statistics, Economic Census, Survey of Business Owners, Building Permits

Coleman-Jensen, A., Nord, M., and Singh, A. (2013). Household Food Security in the United States in 2012 Statistical Supplement.  Economic Research Report No. (ERR-155) 41 pp, September 2013.

Cummins, S., & Macintyre, S. (2002). A systematic study of an urban foodscape: the price and availability of food in greater Glasgow. Urban Studies, 39, 2115–2130, 16.

Department of City and Regional Planning – University of North Carolina. (2008).  Sowing the Seeds: The Promise of Local Food Systems in Southeast Central North Carolina – Report prepared for the Center for Community Action and the Center for Integrating Research and Action.  Retrieved from

Department of Health. (1996). Low income, food, nutrition and health: Strategies for improvement. A Report from the Low Income Project Team to the Nutrition Task Force. London: Department of Health.

Eckert, J., & Shetty, S. (2011). Food systems, planning and quantifying access: Using GIS to plan for food retail. Applied Geography31(4), 1216-12.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States. Retrieved from

Environmental Protection Agency. (2000). Ambient Water Quality Criteria Recommendations: Rivers and Streams in Nutrient Ecoregion XIV. Retrieved from

Food Lion. (2014). Distribution Centers. Retrieved from

Gallagher, M. (2007). Examining the Impact of Food Deserts on Public Health in Detroit, Mari Gallagher Research & Consulting Group.

Hassini, E., Surti, C., & Searcy, C. (2012). A literature review and a case study of sustainable supply chains with a focus on metrics. International Journal of Production Economics140(1), 69-82.

Herrera, N. M. (2011). “Access to affordable and nutritious food: measuring and understanding food deserts and their consequences.” Eating right: the consumption of fruits and vegetables (2011): 1-137.

Jilcott-Pitts, S. B., Wu, Q., McGuirt, J. T., Crawford, T. W., Keyserling, T. C., & Ammerman, A. S. (2013). Associations between access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA. Public health nutrition16(11), 1944-1952.

Jilcott, S. B., Keyserling, T., Crawford, T., McGuirt, J. T., & Ammerman, A. S. (2011). Examining associations among obesity and per capita farmers’ markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters in US counties. Journal of the American Dietetic Association111(4), 567-572.

Marks, P. (2014). The Regulatory Environment for Farms in Western North Carolina. Appalachian Sustainable Agriculture Project. Retrieved from

Marsden, T., Banks, J., & Bristow, G. (2000). Food supply chain approaches: exploring their role in rural development. Sociologia ruralis40(4), 424-438.

McEntee, J., & Agyeman, J. (2010). Towards the development of a GIS method for identifying rural food deserts: Geographic access in Vermont, USA. Applied Geography30(1), 165-176.

North Carolina Department of Agriculture. (2013). Agricultural Statistics: Summary of Commodities by County. Retrieved from

North Carolina Department of Commerce. (2013). 2011 County Tier Designations. Retrieved from

Parsons, S. 2012. Master’s Thesis, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University.

Pitt County. (2012).  State of the County Health Report. Retrieved from

Schmit, T. M., & Gomez, M. I. (2011). Developing viable farmers markets in rural communities: An investigation of vendor performance using objective and subjective valuations. Food policy36(2), 119-127.

Seuring, S. (2012). A review of modeling approaches for sustainable supply chain management. Decision Support Systems.

Seuring, S., & Müller, M. (2008). From a literature review to a conceptual framework for sustainable supply chain management. Journal of cleaner production16(15), 1699-1710.

Severson, G. (2013). New program connects low-income families with farmer’s markets. Retrieved from

University of Minnesota. (2012). Models for farmer-low income consumer connections. Retrieved from

USDA. (2009). Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food—Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences: Report to Congress. Administrative Publication No. (AP-036) 160 pp, June 2009.

Yousefian, A., Leighton, A., Fox, K., & Hartley, D. (2011). Understanding the rural food environment–perspectives of low-income parents. Rural & Remote Health11(2).