Surveys

Two types of surveys were administered in 2012 at each household sampled to assess socio-economic characteristics and water source choice behavior; basic health and nutritional status of household members; health effects related to groundwater quality; and health effects associated with water availability and hygiene.

The Household Survey was directed to a head of household and asked questions about:

  • Household composition and characteristics;
  • Educational levels and perceptions of health risks, particularly diarrhea and intoxication from groundwater;
  • Water source selection and characteristics, and water storage/treatment practices for various purposes;
  • Vulnerability and coping strategies fro dealing with water-related problems;
  • Farming during the last growing season (input costs, water sufficiency, yields, gross revenues, etc.);
  • Other livelihood activities, access to credit and information.

Trained health care professionals conducted basic health assessments, evaluating for symptoms related to arsenic exposure, chronic fluoride exposure, and diarrheal disease prevalence. There was both an Adult Health Exam and a shorter Child Health Exam.