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Report on Measuring and Reporting Progress

The Milestone 5 Guidance: Measuring and Reporting Progress in Emissions Reduction, published by ICLEI in January 2013, introduced methods of conducting GHG emissions re-inventory and reductions measurement (i.e., to monitor and report progress of previous climate actions plan). This is the Milestone 5 in ICLEI’s Five Milestones for Climate Mitigation which was put forward before (see Figure 1). As pointed out, “it is important to develop systems and processes to monitor implementation, measure results over time, track changing conditions, leverage new information and ideas, and revise targets and plans as needed”, in order to “ensure that climate action plans are implemented effectively and on schedule” (ICLEI, 2013).

Five Milestones

Figure 1 ICELI’s Five Milestones for Climate Mitigation

 

According to the Milestone 5 Guidance, there are two basic ways to track process of GHG emissions reduction: one is to show aggregate amount of emissions reduction compared to baseline inventory, and the other is to collect separate data from different individual projects under action plan and then to sum them up. ICLEI recommends the local governments to apply both methods when reviewing their climate actions plan, and provides detailed instructions of the measurements. Furthermore, in the section of Evaluating Emissions Reductions from Individual Projects, the methods are illustrated to specific categories: building energy, vehicle-related energy, community programs, and waste management. The Guidance also summarized the factors that need to be considered for calculating emissions, including project-related factors (see Table 5) and external factors, such as, population in the city, weather, economic growth, etc. Furthermore, Milestone 5 provides a framework on how to use above information to re-evaluate the existing Climate Action Plan and the emissions reduction goals.

Table 5 Factors Affecting Emissions (ICELI, 2013)

  
  1. GHG Re-Inventory

(primary importance to track)

  1. Factors Affecting Activity        Data

(secondary importance)

 

Emissions Source

Activity Data Monitored

Emissions Factors

Local Action Metrics

External Factors

Electricity – kWh consumed – CO2 emissions per   kWh – Energy efficiency   projects- New distributed   energy generation (solar)  – Cooling Degree Days   (for A/C use)- Population growth- Jobs growth

– Economic Growth

Natural Gas – Therms consumed – CO2 emissions per therm (constant) – Energy efficiency projects – Heating Degree Days (for heating use)- Population growth- Jobs growth

– Economic Growth

Transportation – Vehicle Miles   Traveled – CO2 emissions per   mile – Changes in mode   share (if available)- Public   transportation ridership rates – Population growth- Jobs growth- Economic Growth

 

Waste – Tons of waste generated – CO2e per ton of waste landfilled (depends on capture   technology at landfill) – Diversion rate – Population growth- Jobs growth- Economic Growth