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Countries

Data collection included all democratic polities of at least two million inhabitants with a minimum recent experience of two rounds of national electoral competition under at least semi-democratic conditions. The latter were identified in terms of average civil and political rights scores of at least 4.0, as awarded by the annual Freedom House survey. Beyond …

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Papers

Linkage Strategies of Authoritarian Successor Parties Herbert Kitschelt and Matthew Singer Full text  Online appendix   Political Accountability and Democracy Herbert Kitschelt. “Democratic Accountability. Situating the Empirical Field of Research and Its Frontiers.” 2011. Full text Mapping Accountability Mechanisms Herbert Kitschelt and Kent Freeze. “Programmatic Party System Structuration: Developing and Comparing Cross-National and Cross-Party Measures …

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Research Team

2007 The project has been designed and is implemented by a group of doctoral students in Duke University’s political science program under the direction of Herbert Kitschelt, George V. Allen Professor of International Relations. It is implemented in Latin America by a team of researchers under the supervision of David Altman and Juan Luna. Their …

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Data

Information on funding: Collection of the data on citizen-politician linkages and accountability relations was funded by three sources. First, Duke University supported the design of the project, the data collection and the data analysis through the principal investigator Herbert Kitschelt’s research funds. A substantial group of graduate students in comparative politics at Duke University contributed …

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Mission Statement

Linkages Between Citizens and Politicians Investigating Varieties of Political Accountability in Electoral Democracies This project studies leadership accountability in polities with multi-party elections around the world.  Its core ideas and empirical approach can be summarized in a few propositions.   Electoral democracies, unlike other political regimes, institutionalize political accountability of rulers to citizens. But accountability is …

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