A new area of HIV-1 research revolves around the issue of mRNA editing, also known as “post-transcriptional epigenomics.” The most common transcriptional modification of mRNA is addition of a methyl group to the N6 position of adenosine to give an “m6A” residue. These are then bound in the cytoplasm by the m6A reader proteins YTHDF1, 2 and 3. We have recently precisely mapped sites of m6A addition on the HIV-1 genome and have shown that m6A substantially increases HIV-1 mRNA abundance and gene expression. As a result, inhibition of m6A addition, or blocking YTHDF protein binding to m6A, inhibits viral gene expression. We are currently seeking to determine exactly how m6A affects HIV-1 replication and whether other viruses also require m6A.