Science Standards

Next Generation Science Standards (current)

The Disciplinary Core Ideas defined in the Next Generation Science Standards that pertain to the modules are listed below. The codes for the Disciplinary Core Ideas addressing the modules are indicated for the physical and life sciences.

Physical Sciences

HS-PS1. Matter and Its Interactions 

PS1A. Structure and Properties of Matter 

PS1B. Chemical Reactions

Life Sciences

HS-LS1. From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes 

LS1A. Structure and Function

National Science Education Standards (former)

The Science Content, Assessment, and Teaching Standards defined in the former National Science Education Standards that pertain to the modules are listed below.

Science Content Standards (C)

CA. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop 

CA1. Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry  

CA2. Understandings about scientific inquiry 

CA22. Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications

CA23. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence

CA25. Communicate and defend a scientific argument

CB. As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

CB2. Structure and properties of matter

CB24. Solids, liquids, and gases differ in the distances and angles between molecules or atoms and therefore in the energy that binds them together. In solids the structure is nearly rigid; in liquids molecules or atoms move around each other but do not move apart; and in gases molecules or atoms move almost independently of each other and are mostly far apart.

CB3. Chemical reactions

CB30. Chemical reactions occur all around us, for example in health care, cooking, cosmetics, and automobiles. Complex chemical reactions involving carbon-based molecules take place constantly in every cell in our bodies.

CB32. A large number of important reactions involves the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other reactions, chemical bonds are broken by heat or light to form very reactive radicals with electrons ready to form new bonds. Radical reactions control many processes such as the presence of ozone and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, burning and processing of fossil fuels, the formation of polymers, and explosions.

CB34. Catalysts, such as metal surfaces, accelerate chemical reactions. Protein molecules called enzymes catalyze chemical reactions in living systems.

CE. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop

CE1. Abilities of technological design

CE2. Understandings about science and technology

CE21. Science often advances with the introduction of new technologies. Solving technological problems often results in new scientific knowledge. New technologies often extend the current levels of scientific understanding and introduce new areas of research.

CF. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

CF1. Personal and community health

CF13. Substances may modify an individuals mood and behavior. The modification may be beneficial or detrimental depending on the motives, type of substance, duration of use, pattern of use, level of influence, and short- and long-term effects. Students should understand that drugs can result in physical dependence and can increase the risk of injury, accidents, and death.

CF6. Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges

CF63. Individuals and society must decide on proposals involving new research and the introduction of new technologies into society. Decisions involve assessment of alternatives, risks, costs, and benefits and consideration of who benefits and who suffers, who pays and gains, and what the risks are and who bears them. Students should understand the appropriateness and value of basic questions–“What can happen?”–“What are the odds?”–and “How do scientists and engineers know what will happen?”

CG. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

CG2. Nature of scientific knowledge

CG21. Scientific explanations must meet certain criteria. First and foremost, they must be consistent with experimental and observational evidence about nature, and must make accurate predictions, when appropriate, about systems being studied. They should also be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open to criticism, report methods and procedures, and make knowledge public. Explanations on how the natural world changes based on myths, personal beliefs, religious values, mystical inspiration, superstition, or authority may be personally useful and socially relevant, but they are not scientific.

Assessment Standards (A)

AA. Assessments must be consistent with the decisions they are designed to inform.

AA1. Assessments are deliberately designed. 

AA2. Assessments have explicitly stated purposes.

AA3. The relationship between the decisions and the data is clear.

AB. Achievement and opportunity to learn science must be assessed.

AB1. Achievement data collected focus on the science content that is most important for students to learn.

AB11. The ability to inquire.

AB12. Knowing and understanding scientific facts, concepts, principles, laws, and theories.

AB13. The ability to reason scientifically.

AB14. The ability to use science to make personal decisions and to take positions on societal issues.

AB15. The ability to communicate effectively about science.

AC. The technical quality of the data collected is well matched to the decisions and actions taken on the basis of their interpretation.

AC2. Assessment tasks are authentic. 

AC4. Students have adequate opportunity to demonstrate their achievements.

AC5. Assessment tasks and methods of presenting them provide data that are sufficiently stable to lead to the same decisions if used at different times.

AD. Assessment practices must be fair.

AD2. Large-scale assessments must use statistical techniques to identify potential bias among subgroups.

AD4. Assessment tasks must be set in a variety of contexts, be engaging to students with different interests and experiences, and must not assume the perspective or experience of a particular gender, racial, or ethnic group.