Science Standards

Next Generation Science Standards (current)

The Disciplinary Core Ideas defined in the Next Generation Science Standards that pertain to the modules are listed below. The codes for the Disciplinary Core Ideas addressing the modules are indicated for the physical and life sciences.

Physical Sciences

HS-PS1. Matter and Its Interactions

PS1A. Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1B. Chemical Reactions

HS-PS2. Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

PS2B. Types of Interactions

HS-PS4. Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

PS4B. Electromagnetic Radiation

Life Sciences

HS-LS1. From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

LS1A. Structure and Function

LS1B. Growth and Development of Organisms

HS-LS3. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

LS3A. Inheritance of Traits

LS3B. Variation of Traits

National Science Education Standards (former)

The Science Content, Assessment, and Teaching Standards defined in the former National Science Education Standards that pertain to the modules are listed below.

Science Content Standards (C)

CA. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop

CA1. Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

CA2. Understandings about scientific inquiry

CA23. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence

CA24. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models

CA25. Communicate and defend a scientific argument

CB. As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

CB1. Structure of atoms

CB11. The atom’s nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons, which are much more massive than electrons. When an element has atoms that differ in the number of neutrons, these atoms are called different isotopes of the element.

CB2. Structure and properties of matter

CB20. Atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing electrons that are furthest from the nucleus. These outer electrons govern the chemical properties of the element.

CB23. The physical properties of compounds reflect the nature of the interactions among its molecules. These interactions are determined by the structure of the molecule, including the constituent atoms and the distances and angles between them.

CB4. Motions and forces

CB6. Interactions of energy and matter

CC. As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

CC1. The cell

CC10. Cells have particular structures that underlie their functions. A membrane that separates it from the outside world surrounds every cell. Inside the cell is a concentrated mixture of thousands of different molecules which form a variety of specialized structures that carry out such cell functions as energy production, transport of molecules, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules, and the storage of genetic material.

CC11. Most cell functions involve chemical reactions. Food molecules taken into cells react to provide the chemical constituents needed to synthesize other molecules. Both breakdown and synthesis are made possible by a large set of protein catalysts, called enzymes. The breakdown of some of the food molecules enables the cell to store energy in specific chemicals that are used to carry out the many functions of the cell.

CC12. Cells store and use information to guide their functions. The genetic information stored in DNA is used to direct the synthesis of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.

CC13. Cell functions are regulated. Regulation occurs both through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins and through the selective expression of individual genes. This regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division.

CC15. Cells can differentiate, and complex multicellular organisms are formed as a highly organized arrangement of differentiated cells. In the development of these multicellular organisms, the progeny from a single cell form an embryo in which the cells multiply and differentiate to form the many specialized cells, tissues and organs that comprise the final organism. This differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes.

CC5: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems

CC50. All matter tends toward more disorganized states. Living systems require a continuous input of energy to maintain their chemical and physical organizations. With death, and the cessation of energy input, living systems rapidly disintegrate.

CC6. Behavior of organisms

CC60. Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. Nervous systems are formed from specialized cells that conduct signals rapidly through the long cell extensions that make up nerves. The nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. In sense organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, and specific chemicals and enable animals to monitor what is going on in the world around them.

CC63. Behavioral biology has implications for humans, as it provides links to psychology, sociology, and anthropology.

CE. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop

CE1. Abilities of technological design

CE11. PROPOSE DESIGNS AND CHOOSE BETWEEN ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS. Students should demonstrate thoughtful planning for a piece of technology or technique. Students should be introduced to the roles of models and simulations in these processes.

CE2. Understandings about science and technology

CE21. Science often advances with the introduction of new technologies. Solving technological problems often results in new scientific knowledge. New technologies often extend the current levels of scientific understanding and introduce new areas of research.

CF. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

CF1. Personal and community health

CF12. Personal choice concerning fitness and health involves multiple factors. Personal goals, peer and social pressures, ethnic and religious beliefs, and understanding of biological consequences can all influence decisions about health practices.

CF13. Substances may modify an individuals mood and behavior. The modification may be beneficial or detrimental depending on the motives, type of substance, duration of use, pattern of use, level of influence, and short- and long-term effects. Students should understand that drugs can result in physical dependence and can increase the risk of injury, accidents, and death.

CG. As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

CG1. Science as a human endeavor

CG2. Nature of scientific knowledge

CG21. Scientific explanations must meet certain criteria. First and foremost, they must be consistent with experimental and observational evidence about nature, and must make accurate predictions, when appropriate, about systems being studied. They should also be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open to criticism, report methods and procedures, and make knowledge public. Explanations on how the natural world changes based on myths, personal beliefs, religious values, mystical inspiration, superstition, or authority may be personally useful and socially relevant, but they are not scientific.

CG22. Because all scientific ideas depend on experimental and observational confirmation, all scientific knowledge is, in principle, subject to change as new evidence becomes available. The core ideas of science such as the conservation of energy or the laws of motion have been subjected to a wide variety of confirmations and are therefore unlikely to change in the areas in which they have been tested. In areas where data or understanding are incomplete, such as the details of human evolution or questions surrounding global warming, new data may well lead to changes in current ideas or resolve current conflicts. In situations where information is still fragmentary, it is normal for scientific ideas to be incomplete, but this is also where the opportunity for making advances may be greatest.