J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 45: 58-61
Giant salvinia is known as one of the world’s worst weeds. Both biological control as well as chemical control is used to combat the weed. Glyphosate and diquat are proven to be the two most effective chemical control agents used to treat giant salvinia.
Nelson and her colleagues tested different rate and spray volumes of glyphosate to determine the most effective way to control giant salvinia. Despite higher rates initially showing greater reduction of biomass, the final results proved that the most effective and economical way to control giant salvinia was at lower rates and spray volume. The experiment also proved the flexibility of glyphosate as a control agent because it was effective at various rates, therefore reducing the risk of failed treatment. All glyphosate treatment rates showed control of over 95% biomass.
Biological Conservation 102, 331-341 (2002)
Aquatic invasive species can have devastating effects on the ecosystems they invade. It is well known that many invasive species are transported long distances to foreign environments in ship ballast water. Experiments on the deoxygenation of ballast water suggest that the process could not only lower survivorship of species in the ballast water but also prove cost effective for the ships by lowering the rust levels of ballast tanks.
Mario Tamburri of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and his colleagues tested the survivorship of aquatic organisms as well as rust accumulations in oxygenated water vs. deoxygenated water in ballast tanks. They found that rust levels of the deoxygenated water were far less than the oxygenated water and they observed a significant mortality in the deoxygenated water in just a few days. Deoxygenation systems in ships may offer a financial incentive to ship owners as well as significantly reducing the number of aquatic species they transport.
Ballast tanks aboard ships are one of the most effective and predominant ways for aquatic invasive species to spread. A fairly new product, SeaKleen, is currently under testing to determine it’s toxicity on organisms within ballast tanks.
D.A. Wright and his partners from the University of Maryland and other organizations, tested the effectiveness of SeaKleen within the ballast tanks of an empty oil tanker journeying from Oregon to Alaska. The team inserted 3 EPA approved organisms into the ballast tanks for their test. From 2 tanks with varying densities of SeaKleen and 1 control, the group gathered data such as SeaKleen concentration, salinity, and pH levels. To test the efficacy of SeaKleen, Wright and colleagues counted the dead and alive organisms from numerous samples. The team found the tank must have at least 0.8mg of SeaKleen per litre of water for there to be no live organisms. Also stated was that SeaKleen disperses safely into the water and poses no harm to humans.
Environmental Technology doi: 10.1080/09593330902929889 (2009)