Sounds in sports have been used in many occasions to achieve many objectives especially among those who have recognized its importance in community, personal, or even family life. Music together with other forms of sounds are often integrated in sporting activities especially during a game in which the teams are battling it out to find out the team that is likely to merge as the winning team. As observed by Turino (221), the power of music is evident in most of our activities be it at personal, family or at the community level for its emotional power and impacts that it puts on our society. He also argued that for the last ten years, ethnomusicologists have often agreed that music play an important role in our lives as it results in to the individuals realizing not only their identities but also helps in the participation of the community in the social, political and economical activities. These are evident that the power of music is evident and can not be ignore in sports either. It is important to note that in ports however, not only music is evident, but there are also some of the organized sounds like the cheers, shouts, claps and many others which are organized in a specific manner for the purpose of sending identity messages or just for encouragement.
Archive for the '04-20-0830' Category
As a society, humans have a natural tendency to form certain communities. Let us think of communities as a group we associate or identify with for a certain reason. For example, we form working communities and living communities that tend to be determined by where an individual works or lives. It should come to no surprise then that there are also communities that center around sports and certain sports teams and culture. Social theorists have analyzed the various trends of society, that when placed in the right context, can help us better understand the sporting community. Through the reading and studying of these commentators, two important social ideas begin to separate themselves in terms of applicability to sporting community examination. The concepts of sound and momentum are important to any community, but they distinguish themselves when speaking in terms of sports. Sound, from an anthropological standpoint, is observed and utilized mainly as a method of recording ethnographic evidence. Momentum, defined in science as force derived from the “combination of mass and velocity,” in social context “describes the entire process through which action occurs, encompassing rate, grace, intensity, effort and success” (Adler 1981, 14). Sound and momentum often operate separately, but in the social context, we are most interested in how they work together. The relationship between sound and momentum can be seen through evidence presented in our readings, but our greatest evidence for this claim is the fieldwork we have done throughout the year. Having attended various sporting events over the semester and taken notes and jottings, we have had a chance to see first hand how sound and momentum operate together. One major topic of discussion was how sound responds to momentum. In this paper I will also attempt to show how momentum responds to sound through evidence from field notes I have taken and analytical support from social theorist and ethnomusicologist. In sports, sporting communities help shape sound and momentum, which operate in a cyclical pattern. This dialogue between momentum and sound is part of what makes a sporting community.
The sporting community lies at the center of the idea of sound and momentum. The fan is the integral component of the community, each fan adding an individual aspect to the formation of a greater group. Sporting communities are a group of people, in this case fans, that gather together to follow and support a certain sport or sport’s team that “reflect and represent specific locations and local identities” (Crawford 2004, 52). Sporting communities often have deep historical roots, and as Durkheim explains, social tendencies must be explained “historically” or in context in order for them to have any sort of scientific validity. Certain sounds and changes in momentum are exclusive to certain communities because the community is tied to a sport with unique properties. For example, a fan that follows baseball and attends many baseball games is going to experience sound and momentum shifts differently than a fan attending a basketball game. In a field note from March 2nd, 2011 from the Duke basketball game against Clemson, sound is present throughout the event, and the momentum is changing almost constantly. From the moment we walked up to the line till the sound of the buzzer for halftime, sounds dominated the scene. The chants and cheers from the crowd, the songs blasted over the speakers, the tunes played by the band, the talking and screaming on the court, and all happening at the same time, give just a sampling of what the auditory experience was like. The momentum shifts were in constant fluctuation as well. Waiting patiently as the line inched along, and then the reward of finally rushing into Cameron Indoor Stadium were merely precursors to the erratic game to come. Coach K and the rest of the Duke team attempted to control the momentum of the game via timeouts and “sparks” provided by players such as Ryan Kelly and Nolan Smith. The basketball game is chaotic, but it is thrilling and exciting. On the other hand we have a baseball game. On Tuesday April 5th, I attended the Duke versus Wofford baseball game. While there was a line and music being played and sung at the basketball game, I showed up to this game early in the second inning and just walked right in. There were fans, and there was music being played, but the atmosphere was different. The fans were more adults than students and there were few cheers. But they were still sounds that needed to be recorded because that is what distinguishes these two sporting communities. The momentum, though not as constant in its change, was still exciting and elicited reactions from the crowd. The reason that these sporting events differ so much is because of the historical and cultural differences in their sporting communities. The Duke basketball community is one of the greatest sporting communities in the world. The “Cameron Crazies” are a national sensation for their devotion and spirit for their team and outstanding legacy. Meanwhile the Duke baseball community is not nearly as large or well known. Their legacy is not as recognized as the basketball program is. The differences in sporting communities in this example factors into the differences in the sound and momentum of the two sporting events.
Steve Feld, an anthropologist and ethnomusicologist, was one of the early researchers to realize the importance of ”sound and sound recording” while studying writings and recordings of central Africa (Feld 2004, 461). Thanks to his realization, a recorded account became as valuable and valid if not more than one that was described through writing. The importance of sound in social context began to take a new meaning, and a budding field of study began to bloom. Sound is a fundamental aspect of human society and community. Sound expresses emotion and can describe a scene. Sound is also an integral part of the sporting community. Sound encompasses everything from the conversation a coach has with a player, to the music played at halftime. The sounds of a certain event will be determined by the sporting community, similar to how a band may sound different because they are aimed towards a certain community. The community determines and shapes the sounds. Applying Keil’s theories of “participatory discrepancies,” that deal with what Durkheim would call the “value,” or human perspective, and the “out of syncness” and “groove” of music, to the sporting community helps us better understand how this part of society operates (Durkheim 1972, 59). When at a game where there are many sounds, it is reasonable to ask one’s self how all these people can all be together when everything seems so chaotic. Keil would argue that because of the “creative tensions” and “participatory discrepancies,” these fans become more cohesive than if they are to all be doing the same thing (Keil 1987, 275). Often times there are sounds that are individual to sporting events. Cheers tailored to a specific team are one example, but sometimes a community takes it a step further. During the 2010 World Cup held in South Africa, the vuvuzela became the sound of the tournament. The South African sporting community brought a part of their culture and history and gave it to the world. Every game was accompanied by the incessant drone of thousands of people blowing their horns. It became the sound that was identified with the tournament. Unfortunately it was too distracting for the players and has since been banned from FIFA games.
Momentum is heavily dependant on a sporting community. Being a part of a sporting community is something that can become very intimate and collective. Crawford tells us “fan communities are frequently exclusionary of certain individuals, on the basis of class, disability, ethnicity, and gender” (Crawford 2004, 52). Because of the exclusivity of these communities, they become tighter knit and the experience becomes more intimate. Thus when something goes wrong or right for someone on the court, the fan is more likely to react with more passion thus either giving the players positive or negative feedback. Although momentum is determined directly by the players on the court, the crowd can play a large role in how a player performs through jeering or cheering. For example, on the day of the Duke game against Clemson, Nolan Smith made a turnover that could have been avoided. He looked to his teammates, patting his chest and saying, “My bad.” The fans in the crowd, emotionally charged by this display, cheer even louder for Nolan the next play and on a subsequent play he makes a huge dunk that sends the crowd wild and leads to a momentum shift towards the Duke team. The crowds personal investment in Nolan gives him the confidence he needs to provide a solid play that result in points being earned. Sometimes sporting communities have rivalries that ignite players into action. One of the best sports rivalries in all of sports happens right here in Cameron Indoor Stadium, when Duke University plays the University of Chapel Hill in their annual faceoff. Another sports rivalry is that between the two soccer clubs Arsenal FC from England and FC Barcelona from Spain. These cubs play each other outside of their regular season game play, but the match is just as exciting. Both clubs have a great legacy and both have an incredible fan base. In their previous meeting, Barcelona had wiped Arsenal 4-1, meaning the Gunners were looking for revenge. At the beginning of the game Arsenal looked sloppy, and ready for another loss. But thanks to two quick goals from Arsenal in a quick shift of momentum, they managed to escape with a win. Because of the rivalry between these two communities, the players from the underdog team fought harder and escaped with a victory.
Sporting communities respond when there is a shift in momentum. They cheer, they jump up and down, they boo, and variety of other reactions. As expected one of the most accurate methods of measuring a team’s performance is by the sounds of the game. That is, sound marks the momentum of the game, and because of the cyclical nature of sound and momentum; the momentum of the game also may change due to the sounds. The intimate nature of momentum mentioned earlier can be transferred to sound as well. Angela Impey, after research of African people and their instruments, concluded that the music, among other things, provided “a focus for mobilizing collective evocations of self and place” (Impey 2008, 33). The music, or sound, for the people in these African countries, very unique and exclusive to their cultures, serves as a group action or movement that occurs through emotion brought about by sound. The momentum of the action relies on the sounds that are in the music because of the personal involvement. If we think in term of sports, then the sounds from the crowd give certain power to the players on the field. Returning to the field note on the basketball game, whenever a player from the opposing team shoots free throws, the fans scream and move in order to distract them. On the other hand, when a Duke player shoots, the stadium is silent and then grunts in approval when one is made. Free throws are an element of the game that when made can lead a team to victory. Making or missing free throws can affect performance and can slow the gaining of momentum. And yet even in this example we can see the cyclical nature of sound and momentum. When an opposing player makes a free throw, fans hiss and boo, and when he misses they yell and cheer. These taunts and jeers come with an emotional attachment that can either rile up a player or dishearten him, once again either allowing either for a gain or loss in momentum. How the dialogue between sound and momentum progresses is also dependent upon the sporting community. Golf is a sport that often demands a certain class and etiquette that is not present in other sports. The “golf clap” is unique to golf. It is a clap, but softer and more delicate; in order to not create a loud noise and distract other concentrated golfers. Because of the level of skill needed to play golf, concentration is key and it is important to not become distracted, and therefore it is important to remain quite while shooting; However, there is an exception to the rule. Sometimes when an incredible shot is made, for example a hole in one, or a long put, the crowd becomes excited and cheers loudly. The relationship between sound and momentum in golf is regulated by the golfing community and thus specific to this community alone.
The cyclical nature of sound and momentum, both influenced by the sporting community in which they exist, is an important part of sports. Whether as a player or as a spectator, momentum and sound are present and present and operate together. The field notes presented offer insight into the sporting world, with emphasis on how sound and momentum work. Sound and momentum serve not only to play off each other, but also to make the game more involving for those included in the community. Emotional and personal investment in sports is necessary in order to properly appreciate the complexity and intricacy of a game or match. Sports have the capability of making an individual feel like they are part of something bigger than themselves. That sense of community heightens an individual’s investment because now everyone involved is connected and feeling the same. Music has been called “the language of the world.” It has the ability to bring together people from many different places and backgrounds and provide some sort of common ground. Sound has much of the same affect in sports. Through chants and cheers, the participants are presented with a way to connect to fellow fans. The momentum of the game adds thrill and excitement. A participant’s involvement in a sporting community dictate the experience.
By Jessica Huang
When an individual becomes part of society, does he maintain his sense of self or does he become one with the rest of society? Is it possible for him to be both? Georg Simmel, a German sociologist and philosopher, asked these questions in his essay entitled How is Society Possible? He investigates the interactions between man and society and how one affects the other. To further analyze the topics that Simmel presents in his essay, I will study the problem at a smaller level by using the Duke fans at the women’s basketball game between Duke and UNC on February 9, 2011 to represent society. Merriam-Webster defines a society as “a community, nation, or broad grouping of people having common traditions, institutions, and collective activities and interests”. By using a smaller group to represent society, specific details involving Duke fans can be used to better analyze the questions. Sounds made by Duke fans through cheers and chants will be key in examining individual versus group tendencies. Using Charles Keil’s theory of participatory discrepancies and Thomas Turino’s semiotic theory to support my findings, I will first discuss how the fans act as individuals within the society, then how the crowd functions as one united force, and finally how it is possible for the two to co-exist.
Environmental Sustainability: On the Rapid Deforestation in North Korea, by Daniel Piao
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problems that North Korea faces regarding environmental sustainability, specifically with regards to deforestation. Deforestation has been a problem since Japanese colonization and was exacerbated by the Korean War, but has not improved since then; rather, more and more forested areas are being depleted; this deforestation is a major factor in why North Korea has the lowest Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) rating in the world. Between 1990 and 2010, North Korea lost 30.9% of its forest cover, a number that is far larger than that of any other country during this timeframe. This is a crucial issue, seeing as how the forests serve many different purposes, such as the maintenance of watersheds, provision of habitat for animals and plants, supply of key ingredients of traditional medicines, wood fuel, as well as significance in Korean culture and spiritual life. The rapid deforestation of North Korea, along with the other problems it faces such as the production of organic pollutants such as DDT has both political and apolitical aspects, and both must be resolved to help reduce the problems that North Korea faces in environmental sustainability. The political aspects stem from involvement with nuclear weapons and the threat of conflict with other nations, as well as an isolationist mentality hinders access to foreign aid organizations, and the apolitical from natural occurrences such as acid rain from China. New policy can be realized to help reverse the serious problems that North Korea faces in environmental sustainability.
By Christine Wixted-first paragraph
Sports have always been something to watch and not something fans usually listen to. The sounds of sports are what make the games truly come alive. When a player hits a huge shot or when a home run is busted out of the park, the sounds the actual play, fans, and players add to the energy and excitement level of the game. Without sound there would be no fun in watching or even playing a sport. Sound allows players to know what’s going on in the game and allows fans to express their reaction to the plays in the game. Through the scholarly works of Crawford, Durkheim, Adler, and Keil, sports and sound can be seen through a different perspective. With the ides of momentum shifts, fan societies, and in and out of syncness, sounds of the NBA and the NCAA can be compared and contrasted to further illustrate how much more important sounds are and how those sounds are clearly more dominate to the NCAA than they are to the NBA. The domination of sounds in the NCAA add a new level to the game and keep the excitement level at an all time high. Sounds add to all of these ideas and these ideas aid in how the game is played out. The sounds of these two leagues clearly demonstrate how important the sense of hearing is. Even though the sounds may differ, they both prove the same point: without sound sports would simply not be sports.
By Vandana Kumar
Since 2005, Kenya has been one of the 15 countries with the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. As of 2009, 6.3% of the country’s men and women, or 1.9 million out of a population of 38.6 million, are affected by HIV/AIDS. The high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya is a combined result of sexual practices conducive to the spread of the virus, insufficient sex education for individuals of all ages, and stigmatization of individuals with AIDS. Halting and reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS, as stated in Millennium Development Goal #6, requires looking beyond clinical interventions and understanding the social context of the disease through the lens of sexual practices such as multiple concurrent partnerships. This paper will evaluate HIV prevention initiatives already in place, namely school and community sex education programs and methods of condom distribution. It will also use these models to propose new modes of HIV prevention, such as multi-purpose prevention centers in rural communities. These centers, staffed by community healers, will target all facets of HIV prevalence by combining primary healthcare and sex education with counseling and activism. Grassroots initiatives that encourage community and individual empowerment while maintaining cultural integrity are the most effective ways to halt the spread HIV/AIDS in Kenya.
By Nia Deeyor
This paper explores the effectiveness of the policies and techniques in place to help increase the literacy rate in Senegal. Implemented literacy courses in primary through secondary institutions for children and non-traditional education for adults and while the approach, duly taken, seems viable, the literacy rate in Senegal has not increased due to a lack of communications between the ethnic groups in Senegal. This paper will discuss the steps taken to implement techniques of increasing the literacy rate in full detail. This paper will also discuss the impediments that have made it impractical for the millennium development goals to be met in Senegal such as a vast diversity among ethnic groups, the primary education rates, and a theoretical debate over what language should be used when determining what language Senegal should be literate in. The final sections argue for more emphasis placed on primary to secondary education in the countryside as well as an increase in non-traditional education as well as a consensus among the various ethnic groups to determine that French should be the official language that Senegal should be literate in. Only then, will Senegal’s literacy rate will be able to meet the Millennium Development Goal in education.
by Prerna Gupta
Internal household conditions influence the education of the people of India and consequentially affect their skills, knowledge, and access to productive employment in the future. These internal household conditions are illustrated predominantly through the perspective of poverty and child labor, which affect enrolment in primary education. Involving intrahousehold resource allocation along with household economics, and centralizing on the fact that, in impoverished populations, children often become a source of income and vital to the sustainability of the family, child labor leads to a lack of education for children, as parents are unwilling to forego this immediate pecuniary value. Material incentives like mid-day meals, the provision of books, uniforms, etc., can be helpful in drawing children out of work to schools only if the economic value of these incentives is more than the wages obtained by the children in employment. However, such incentives in the past have not yielded much success. In order for primary education enrolment rates to rise and the second Millennium Development Goal to be achieved, policies need to target not only education development, but also specifically economic development in the impoverished and social development, in terms relaying the importance and benefits of receiving an education. When these three components of the issue are effectively improved, the relationship between child labor and education can finally be broken down.
By Jacob Golan
Membership in the United Nations requires a country to uphold the doctrines, policies, commissions and protocols issued by the organization. Cuba is a UN member that has failed to uphold its commitment to the organization by disregarding the Millennium Development Goal ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper discusses Cuba’s environmental violations in terms of its three main industries, tourism, nickel mining and petroleum. These industries show how Cuba has not only ignored the environmental requirements put forth by the MDGs, but also continues to expand its industrial economy in spite of already apparent environmental damage. This ecological degradation is primarily caused by the contradictory nature of Cuban environmental law, and the UN’s oversight of Cuba’s negligence. Cuban environmental destruction transcends other MDG concerns as poor environmental conditions express themselves through the deteriorated health and social situation of the Cuban people. Should the international community continue to ignore the Cuban government’s actions, it will ultimately demonstrate the unenforceability of the MDGs. Moreover, environmental damage will spread to surrounding Caribbean islands, as well as coastal Mexico, South America and the United States. This paper urges immediate international pressure against the Cuban government until sincere efforts are made to improve its environment. As Cuba relies primarily on global trade, advocating a public stigma against investing in Cuba will be the most practicable measure in bringing about Cuban environmental reform.
By: Eric Jiang
This paper explores the effects of gender and culture in Botswana and their roles in achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of combating HIV and AIDS. Indicated by the HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years, the progress of Botswana, with a HIV prevalence of 24.8%, is discouragingly distant from reaching its MDG. The Botswana government is relatively stable within Southern Africa, with an adequate healthcare system targeted towards the prevention of HIV/AIDS, yet the country still has the second highest prevalence in the world. This paper argues that beyond the lack of condom use, comprehensive knowledge, and access to antiretroviral treatment, social perceptions and gender-related stigmas contribute to the prevalence of AIDS in Botswana. Through documented case studies of Botswana families affected by AIDS, and analysis of data and academic journal articles, this paper investigates the cultural implications of caring for the infected, socially constructed stigmas, and perceptions of women in the spread of AIDS. This paper demonstrates the cultural contribution to the AIDS, and concludes that these aspects should be targeted by policies in addition to medical aspects in order to effectively combat the prevalence and spread of AIDS.